The Covenanters of the Enterkin Pass Attack of 1684 #History #Scotland

geograph-4300800-by-Alan-ODowd

The rescue of Covenanters at Enterkin Pass was an attack on a small party of John Graham of Claverhouse’s troop of Horse escorting prisoners from Dumfries to Edinburgh. It took place at the end of July, 1684, and up to three soldiers were killed.

Daniel Defoe left two accounts of the daring attack. One published in 1717 and the other in his Tour of Great Britain.

Claverhouse was not present, but he took immediate action to discover those who were responsible for the attack. He captured six of the rescuers in Closeburn parish on 9 August. He would go on to capture and kill three more at Auchencloy in December.

Who were the Covenanters involved in the Enterkin Attack?
The list below is based on the work of Ford and Hewison to identify the attackers.

1. Andrew Clark, sometime of Leadhills in Crawford parish, Lanarkshire.
He was captured by Claverhouse on 9 August, 1684, and executed in Edinburgh on 15 August.

Map of Leadhills

2. James Todd, merchant in Crawford parish, Lanarkshire.
He was probably the fugitive ‘James Tod, merchant chapman, now in Lanark’, Crawford parish, Lanarkshire.

3. Gilbert Watson in Glengonnar, Crawford parish, Lanarkshire.
He was probably the fugitive ‘Gilbert Watson, sometime in Ormingill [i.e., Normangill]’, Crawford parish, Lanarkshire. Watson became an intelligencer, or spy, for government forces after the Enterkin Rescue. (Hewison, Covenanters, II, 432.)

In particular, Watson was responsible for betraying the five Covenanters killed at Ingleston, Glencairn parish, in April, 1685, which possibly included his fellow Enterkin rescuer, 12, Robert Grierson. (See No. 12,)

Map of Glengonnar

4. John Glencorse in Coshogle, Durisdeer parish, Nithsdale.
He was possibly the fugitive ‘John Glencorse, in Carshogil [ie., Coshogle]’, in Durisdeer parish, Dumfriesshire.

Map of Coshogle

5. Thomas Hunter in Breconside, Durisdeer parish, Nithsdale.
He was the fugitive ‘Thomas Hunter, in Brackenside [i.e., Breconside, Durisdeer parish, wanted for] reset and converse’, Dumfriesshire.

Map of Breconside

6. Adam Harkness in Mitchellslacks, Closeburn parish, Nithsdale.

Map of Mitchellslacks

7. Thomas Harkness, in Mitchellslacks, Closeburn parish, Nithsdale.
He was captured after the Enterkin Rescue, probably by Claverhouse on 9 August, and taken to Dumfries, but he escaped. He allegedly hid at Crichope Linn.

8. James Harkness in Locherben, Closeburn parish, Nithsdale.
He was the fugitive ‘James Harkness, in Locherbain [i.e., Locherben in Closeburn parish], Dumfriesshire. He was captured by Claverhouse in Closeburn on 9 August, 1684. However, he quickly escaped, probably from Dumfries Tolbooth.

Map of Locherben

9. Thomas Harkness, junior, in Locherben, Closeburn parish, Nithsdale.
He was the fugitive ‘Thomas Harkness, in Locherbains [i.e., Locherben in Closeburn parish], Dumfriesshire. He was captured by Claverhouse in Closeburn parish on 9 August, 1684, and executed in Edinburgh on 15 August.

10. Robert Clark ‘in Kirkop’, Crawford parish?
‘Kirkop’ is possibly Kirkhope in Crawford parish, Lanarkshire.
Thomas Harkness, junior, who was executed in Edinburgh, was married to Agnes Menzies at “Kirkhop” in c.1677. After his death, Agnes married John Harkness “of Kirkhop”. The farm at Kirkhope was also known as “Kirkop” and was on lands held by the Duke of Queensberry.

Map of Kirkhope

11. Thomas Wood in Kirkmichael parish, Dumfriesshire.
He was captured by Claverhouse on 9 August, 1684. Badly wounded when taken, he was executed in Edinburgh later than the others on 9 December.

12. Robert Grier[son?], chapman, sometimes in Dumfries.
Ford lists a ‘Robert Grier, chapman’ as one of the Enterkin Rescuers. He was the fugitive ‘Robert Grier, chapman, sometime in Dumfries’. (Ford, ‘Enterkin’, 137.)

However, Hewison mentions that ‘John Grier, chapman from Glencairn [parish]’ was one of the rescuers and that Robert Grierson was killed at Ingleston. (Hewison, Covenanters, II, 432 and 432n.)

13. Ninian Steel in Glengar, Penpont parish, Nithsdale
He was the fugitive ‘Ninian Steel, in Glengar’ in the parish of Penpont, Dumfriesshire.
https://drmarkjardine.wordpress.com/category/by-name/ninian-steel-glengar/

Map of Glengar

14. Thomas Hunter in Woodend, Penpont parish, Nithsdale.
He was the fugitive ‘Thomas Hunter, younger in Wood-end’ [i.e., Woodend in Penpont parish], Dumfriesshire.

Map of Woodend

15. Samuel McEwen in Glencairn parish, Nithsdale.
He was captured by Claverhouse on 9 August, 1684, and executed in Edinburgh on 15 August.

Jedburgh Ingliston

16. James Corsan in Jarbruck, Glencairn parish, Nithsdale.
He was the fugitive ‘James Corsan, in Jedburgh’, Dumfriesshire.

Jedburgh is now known as Jarbruck. It lies by Ingleston where five Covenanters were shot in the Killing Times.

17. William Corsan in Jarbruck, Glencairn parish, Dumfriesshire.
He was the fugitive ‘William Corsan, in Jedburgh’.

Map of Jedburgh/Jarbruck

18. William Herries in Kirkcudbright, Glencairn parish, Nithsdale.

Map of Kirkcudbright in Glencairn parish

19. Robert Lauchlison in Nithsdale.
Ford listed him as one of the Enterkin Rescuers. He was probably the fugitive, ‘Robert Lauchlison, in Burnside’ [in Dunscore parish], in Dumfriesshire. The printed register of the privy council lists Robert Lauchlison as a fugitive in Dunscore parish, but he allegedly did not know of anyone at Enterkin when he submitted in November, 1684.

Map of Burnside in Dunscore parish

20. Robert Stewart in Manquhill, Dalry parish, Kirkcudbrightshire.
He was killed by Claverhouse at Auchencloy in December, 1684.

Map of Manquhill

21. James MacMichael in Old Clachan of Dalry, Dalry parish, Kirkcudbrightshire.
He was killed by Claverhouse at Auchencloy in December, 1684.

Old Clachan is St John’s Town of Dalry.

Map of Old Clachan/St John’s Town of Dalry

22. William Hunter in Old Clachan, Dalry parish, Kirkcudbrightshire.
He was captured by Claverhouse at Auchencloy and executed at Kirkcudbright in December, 1684.

23. Daniel McMichael in Lorg aka. Lorgfoot, Dalry parish, Kirkcudbrightshire.
The brother of James McMichael. He was also possibly involved in the Enterkin Rescue. According to a witness, the wife of John Hoatson of Nether Dalveen gave winding sheets to ‘the killed prisoners’ at Enterkin. Daniel McMichael was summarily executed at Nether Dalveen six months after the rescue.

Map of Lorg

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Text © Copyright Dr Mark Jardine. All Rights Reserved. Please link to this post on Facebook or other social networks or retweet it, but do not reblog in full without the express permission of the author @drmarkjardine

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~ by drmarkjardine on November 4, 2018.

One Response to “The Covenanters of the Enterkin Pass Attack of 1684 #History #Scotland”

  1. […] The attackers at Caldons were unusual, as most of them were not fugitives from Bothwell. In similar cases where Covenanters attacked soldiers, most of those involved were fugitives who had appeared on the roll published in 1684, e.g., the Enterkin Attackers. […]

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