The Hidden: Fugitives in Penninghame parish, 1684

Penninghame parish was the centre of militant dissent in Wigtownshire. In late 1684, several fugitives were still at large…

Margaret Wilson, one of the drowned Wigtown martyrs, first appears in history in the context of a circuit court held by William Douglas of Queensberry, James Douglas, Lord Drumlanrig, and John Graham of Claverhouse at Wigtown in mid October, 1684. Wilson was not summoned to the court and she did not attend it. However, her name was included in a list of disorderly persons, i.e., those who refused to go to church, which was compiled and supplied to that court by the minister of Penninghame parish

Barnkirk Hill

Barnkirk Hill © Andy Farrington and licensed for reuse.

It was at that point that the authorities first took an interest in her. From then, until her capture in the spring of 1685, Margaret Wilson was effectively on the run, especially after she failed to take the Abjuration oath in early 1685.

Although Wilson does not appear in the October 1684 summons, many of her neighbours in Penninghame parish were listed. The document adds greater contextual depth as to how her summary execution came about.

A summons was issued for those in Wigtownshire who had conversed with fugitives ‘to compear at Wigtoune on 14th October next’.

The following list contains those mentioned in the summons. They include fugitives, in bold and numbered, and those summoned for converse with them, who are listed in connection with each fugitive. A number of individuals, mainly women married to fugitives, were banished to the plantations by the court.

Barnkirk mapBarnkirk Map

1. William Kennedy in Barnkirk, Penninghame parish.
William Kennedy appears on the Fugitive Roll of mid 1684 as ‘William Kennedy, in Barnkirk’. (Jardine, ‘United Societies’, II, 214.)

In the late 1670s, John Welsh, the former minister of Irongray, field preached at Barnkirk. Others were summoned in places that Kennedy had haunted Minnigaff parish. (See No. 4.)

Barnkirk lay near the present-day farm of South Barnkirk and below [South] Barnkirk Hill, a hill fort.

Map of South Barnkirk

Barnkirk Ruins

The following were summoned to the Wigtown court for converse with Kennedy:

‘Sara Stewart, spouse to William Kennedie [in Barnkirk], rebell,’

She appeared before the court in Wigtown on 16 October and was ordered to enact never to reset fugitives. She was probably liberated. (RPCS, X, 606-10.)

There are two Sarah Stewarts on the parish list for Wigtownshire of October, 1684. who lived in the parishes of Whithorn or Kirkcolm.

‘John Stewart in Glenluchok for conversing, eating and drinking with William Kennedie, rebell, in Walter Hunter his [house] att Linloscane thrie yeirs since or therby [i.e., in c.1681];’

Stewart appeared before the court at Wigtown on 16 October. He was ordered banished to the plantations on 17 October, however, he then took oaths and was liberated. (RPCS, X, 606-10, 612.)

‘Andrew Slowan [Slewan] in Glenluchok for communing with William Kennedie, rebell, in the street of Moneygaif about thrie yeirs since or thereby;’

Slowan appeared before the court in Wigtown on 16 October. He was found guilty of forced or accidental converse with Kennedy and liberated. (RPCS, X, 606-10.)

‘Glenluchok’, or ‘Glenlukcock’ as it appears on the parish list of October, 1684, probably lay somewhere near Garwachie, as it it listed after it on the list, possibly on Garwachie Moor.

Map of Garwachie

Clachaneasy Bridge over Cree

Bridge over Cree at Clachaneasy near Carhobie © Mark McKie and licensed for reuse.

‘Patrick McComb in Carhobie for converseing with William Kennedie, rebell, in Carhobie barn about Beltane last [i.e., c.1 May, 1684], as also for converseing with Anthonie Stewart [in Larg], rebell, since Bothwell, and particullarly when the said rebell was gathering his stuff and cropt of the lands of Carhobie;’

McComb appeared before the court in Wigtown on 16 October. He was found guilty of forced or accidental converse with Kennedy and liberated. (RPCS, X, 606-10.)

He appears on the parish list of 1684 in ‘Kirhable’, which lay between Glenvernock and Knockville. The placename is now Clachaneasy, the site of a bridge over the Cree to Larg in Minnigaff parish.

Map of Carhobie

Skaith

Skaith © Andy Farrington and licensed for reuse.

‘Alexander M’Kie in Skaith for converseing with William Kennedie, rebell, in August last [1684], as he was coming from Moneygaif mercatt;’

M’Kie appeared before the court in Wigtown on 16 October. He was found guilty of forced or accidental converse with Kennedy and liberated. (RPCS, X, 606-10.)

Map of Skaith                 Aerial View of Skaith

Challoch Moss

Challoch Moss © Andy Farrington and licensed for reuse.

‘John Tait in Challock for converseing with William Kennedie, rebell, in August last [1684] or therby;’

Tait appeared before the court in Wigtown on 16 October. He was found guilty of forced or accidental converse with Kennedy and liberated. (RPCS, X, 606-10.)

‘James Murray in Challock for converseing with the said William Kennedie since Lambas last [in 1684] and severall tymes befor;’

Murray appeared before the court in Wigtown on 16 October. He was found guilty of forced or accidental converse with Kennedy and liberated. (RPCS, X, 606-10.)

Map of Challoch            Aerial View of Challoch

‘William Hunter in Lingloscane for harboring, resetting of, converseing with and intertaineing with meat and drink att his oun house the said William Kennedie about thrie moneths since or therby;’

Hunter appeared before the court in Wigtown on 16 October. He was found guilty of forced or accidental converse with Kennedy and liberated. (RPCS, X, 606-10.)

Map of Linloskin                Street View of Linloskin Bridge

‘John McKie [or McGhie] in Barnkirk for converseing with the said William Kennedie about Lambas last [c.1 August, 1684] and for eating and drinking with him in the house of Walter Hunter in Linloscane, as also for setting ane house to the said rebell his wife and thrie suchlatts sawing of corn land when the said rebell himself was present att the bargaining;’

John McKie appeared before the court at Wigtown on 16 October. He was ordered sent to Edinburgh for trial and to remain a prisoner, but was liberated after finding caution of £500 Scots) never to reset fugitives. (RPCS, X, 606-10, 612, 613..)

‘Alexander McKie in Barnkirk for converseing with the said William Kennedie about Lambas last [1 August 1684];’

Alexander McKie appeared before the court in Wigtown on 16 October. He was found guilty of forced or accidental converse with Kennedy and liberated. (RPCS, X, 606-10.)

‘Robert Stewart, herd in Barnkirk, for converseing with the said William Kennedie about ten dayes befor Lambas last or therby [c.21 July, 1684]’

The only Robert Stewart on the parish list of the same date lived in Ochiltree. Stewart appeared before the court in Wigtown on 16 October. He was found guilty of forced or accidental converse with Kennedy and liberated. (RPCS, X, 606-10.)

‘Thomas McKie in Barnkirk for converseing with the said William Kennedie about ten dayes befor Lambas last or therby [c.21 July, 1684]’

Thomas McKie appeared before the court in Wigtown on 16 October. He was found guilty of forced or accidental converse with Kennedy and liberated. (RPCS, X, 606-10.)

‘Thomas Shielland in Barnkirk for converseing, eating and srinking with the said William Kennedie, rebell, in the Walkmilne of moneygaif about two yeirs since or therby [i.e., in 1682];’

Thomas Shielland appeared before the court in Wigtown on 16 October. He was found guilty of forced or accidental converse with Kennedy and liberated. (RPCS, X, 606-10.)

‘John Shielland in Barnkirk for converseing with the said William Kennedie about Lambas last [c.1 August, 1684]

John Shielland appeared before the court in Wigtown on 16 October. He was found guilty of forced or accidental converse with Kennedy and liberated. (RPCS, X, 606-10.)

Culbratten Pond

Culbratten Pond © Mark McKie and licensed for reuse.

‘John Gordone in Culbratone for converseing with William Kennedie, rebell, within these two yeirs;’

Gordon appeared before the court in Wigtown on 16 October. He was found guilty of forced or accidental converse with Kennedy and liberated. (RPCS, X, 606-10.)

Map of Culbratten               Street View of Culbratten

William McCalmont in Culbratten, see below, was banished by the same court.

Corsbie Farm

Corsbie

‘William Tait in Corsbie for converseing with the said William Kennedie severall tymes since Bothuell;’

Tait appeared before the court in Wigtown on 16 October. He was found guilty of forced or accidental converse with Kennedy and liberated. (RPCS, X, 606-10.)

‘William McQharge [or M’Harg] in Corsbie [sic] with the said William Kennedie in winter last [of 1683 to 1684.]’

McQharge appeared before the court in Wigtown on 16 October. He was found guilty of forced or accidental converse with Kennedy and liberated. (RPCS, X, 606-10.)

Corsbie Farm has now vanished, but appears on the first OS map. It is also called ‘Carsbie’ on other maps. It lay in Viewhills Road, Newton Stewart.

Street View of Corsbie

One other was summoned from Corsbie to the court:

‘Gilbert Edger in Corsbie for converseing with the said William Kennedie and James Martinsone, rebells, severall tymes since Bothuell;’

‘Gilbert Egger’ appears on the parish list of October 1684 under ‘Crosbie’.

Edger/Egger appeared before the court in Wigtown on 16 October. He was found guilty of forced or accidental converse with the two rebels and liberated. (RPCS, X, 606-10.)

Little Glenhapple

Little Glenhapple

The other rebel that Edger conversed with was

2. James Martinson in Little Glenhapple, Penninghame parish.
Martinson appears on the published fugitive roll of May, 1684, as ‘James Martison, in Glenapil’. (Jardine, ‘United Societies’, II, 214.)

Glenapil is Little Glenhapple, as his wife, below, who was banished by the court, appears on the parish list in Little Glenhapple.

Little Glenhapple lay on Glenhapple Moor and near Glenhapple Fell. Today, the ruins of the farm are still visible in a clearing in the forest.

Map of Little Glenhapple

Banished
‘Maragrett Milligene, spouse to James Mertison [in Little Glenhapple, Penninghame parish], rebell,’

She appeared before the court in Wigtown on 16 October and was secured. On 17 October, she refused to swear not to reset fugitives and was ordered banished to the plantations. (RPCS, X, 606-10, 612-3.)

Glenvogie Map

Glenvogie

3. John Martin in Glenvogie
Martin/Martinson appears on the published fugitive roll of May, 1684, as ‘John Martison, in Glenmougil, in the said parish. (Jardine, ‘United Societies’, II, 214.)

‘Glenmougil’ is Glenvogie. His brother, James, who was also a fugitive, is listed above. His wife, Marion Coltraine, and Alexander Martin, their son, are listed on the parish list in Glenvogie.

Glenvogie

Glenvogie © Andy Farrington and licensed for reuse.

In 1711, John Martin attested to his own sufferings in the register of the Penninghame kirk session. He also attested to those of Margaret Wilson, one of the Wigtown martyrs.

Map of Glenvogie

Meikle Eldrig

Meikle Eldrig

‘John Martine in Elrig for converseing with John Mairten, rebell, upon ane muir, as yee war comeing from the smiddie, and for converseing with the said rebell in Wair last [Spring, 1684];’

On the parish list, the family of John Martine in Meikle Eldrig is called Martinson.

Martine appeared before the court in Wigtown on 16 October. He was found guilty of forced or accidental converse with John Martin/Martinson and liberated. (RPCS, X, 606-10.)

Map of Meikle Eldrig

4. John Hannay, at the Mill of Penninghame.
Hannay appears on the published fugitive roll of May, 1684, as ‘John Hannay, at the Mill of Penningham’ (Jardine, ‘United Societies’, II, 214.)

The mill has mostly vanished.

Map of Mill of Penninghame          Street View of Mill of Penninghame

Helen Gordon at the Mill of Penninghame was listed as a withdrawer from the kirk in October, 1684.

The Mill of Penninghame lay next to Causeway End, the home of the fugitive James Stewart.

Banished
‘William McCamount in Culbratton for converseing with John Hannay, rebell, within these thrie yeirs, and with William Kennedie [No.1.], rebell, within this half yeir;’

McCalmont appeared before the court at Wigtown on 16 October. He wss ordered banished to the plantations on 17 October. (RPCS, X, 606-10, 612.)

William was listed as a withdrawer from the kirk in the parish list of October, 1684, as was a ‘John Murdoch, sometyme of this parish’.

Map of Culbratten

Killeal

Killeal © David Baird and licensed for reuse.

5. Alexander McClingan in Killeal/Threave
McClingan appears on the published fugitive roll of May, 1684, as ‘Alexander Clingen, in Kilellan’. (Jardine, ‘United Societies’, II, 214.)

‘Kilellan is probably Killeal, aka Killeal, in Penninghame parish.

Map of Killeal                  Aerial View of Killeal

In 1711, McClingan attested to his own sufferings in the register of the Penninghame kirk session. He also attested to those of Margaret Wilson.

McClingan’s wife, Margaret McClurg, below, was banished by the court.

Banished
‘Margarett McClurg, spouse to Alexander M’Cliggane, rebel’.

Margaret appeared before the court in Wigtown on 16 October and was secured. On 17 October, she refused to swear not to reset fugitives and was ordered banished to the plantations. (RPCS, Xi, 606-10, 612-3.)

She appears on the parish list as ‘Marg Clurg’, wife, in ‘Thrive’, i.e., Theave, south-east of Killeal. Her husband was also listed as ‘Alex Cl.’, but the minister deleted his name.

Map of Threave

Threave lies next to Bartrostan

Bartrostan

Bartrostan © Andy Farrington and licensed for reuse.

‘Andrew [or Adam] McDwall in Bartrestoune for converseing with Alexander McClaggane, rebell, within these tuelf moneths;’

McDowall appeared before the court in Wigtown on 16 October. He was found guilty of forced or accidental converse with McClingan and liberated. (RPCS, X, 606-10.)

Map of Bartrostan                  Aerial View of Bartrostan

Baltersan

Baltersan © Andy Farrington and licensed for reuse.

‘John Makeakan in Baltersane for conversing with William Kennedie [No 1.] and John Hannay [No.4], rebells, about fyve quarters of ane yeir since or therby, and for converseing with Alexander McCliggand [No.5], rebell, within these tuelf moneths;’

Makeakan appeared before the court in Wigtown on 16 October. He was found guilty of forced or accidental converse with the rebels and liberated. (RPCS, X, 606-10.)

Map of Baltersan                Street View of Baltersan

Elspey McGill, Patrick McClellan and Margaret Herron, a widow, all in Baltersan, were withdrawers from the parish kirk on the parish list of 1684.

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Text © Copyright Dr Mark Jardine. All Rights Reserved. Please link to this post on Facebook or retweet it, but do not reblog in FULL without the express permission of the author @drmarkjardine

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~ by drmarkjardine on December 10, 2014.

One Response to “The Hidden: Fugitives in Penninghame parish, 1684”

  1. […] and Kirkcudbright. Key examples of that practice are those summoned from the adjoining parishes of Penninghame, in Wigtownshire, and Minnigaff, in Kirkcudbrightshire. However, when those summons are looked at in detail, it is […]

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