‘For Cutting Tyrants’ Throats’: The Capture of Patrick Foreman, Covenanter

For the Scottish Restoration regime, the inscription on a knife – ‘For Cutting Tyrants’ Throats’ – found on Patrick Foreman when he was captured, almost certainly represented everything which was terrifying in the ‘New Mode Against Monarchie’ that emerged in early 1681. …

Alloa c.1690

Foreman was from Alloa in Alloa parish, Clackmannanshire, which lies on the north bank of the river Forth.

Map of Alloa

His martyrs’ testimony contains a some useful biographical details. In it he stated that he had been through ‘wanderings and imprisonments’ and that he knew some of the Sweet Singers:

‘evil company hath been made useful to me [in May/June 1681]. Yea, these antiscripturists [of the Sweet Singers] were made instructive to me; for I saw these four men (I mean John Gib and his followers) were once as fair on the way, by appearance, as any I knew. But I see gifts are not graces; and now, I think, they are hopeless; and I advise none that tenders [i.e., regards] the glory of God to meddle with them; for they are turned horrid blasphemers and deniers of the Scriptures.’ (Thomson (ed.), CW, 206.)

Canongate Tolbooth

The shift in Foreman’s views on the Sweet Singers was almost certainly due to Cargill’s recent preaching against them at Loudoun Hill (5 May) following the conference with them at Darngavel.

Foreman’s reference to his ‘wanderings’ and ‘imprisonments’ alludes to the possibility that he had failed to take the bond of peace issued after Bothwell and perhaps hints that he may have joined the Rising of 1679 and been imprisoned at Greyfriars.

His other claim, to have known the men involved in the Sweet Singers before they split from the Society people, confirms that he was active in the Societies before mid May 1681. It may also hint that Foreman was involved in the Societies in Stirlingshire, an area which lies just across the Forth from Alloa and near to Bo’ness where the Sweet Singers were active. (Thomson (ed.), CW, 200, 205-206.)

Loudoun Hill  © Gordon Brown and licensed for reuse.

Patrick Walker’s Life of Donald Cargill also places Foreman at Cargill’s field preaching near Loudoun Hill on the border of Lanarkshire and Ayrshire on 5 May, 1681 and present when dragoons attacked:

‘They had out no Sentinels that Day, which was not their ordinary; they were so surprized, that some that had been at Pentland, Bothwel, and Airdsmoss, and in other great Dangers, were never so seized with Fear: Some of the Women threw their Children from them, and Mr. Cargill in the Confusion was running straight upon the Enemy.

Gavin Wotherspoon and other Friends gripped him, and hal’d him into the Moss to which the People fled; also the Dragoons, fired hard upon them, but there were none either kill’d or taken that Day. The Ball went through Patrick Foreman’s Hair, but his Head was safe, his Hour not being yet come, and that neither the Time nor Place that he was to die’. (Walker, BP, II, 32.)

Map of Loudoun Hill

The presence of Foreman and Witherspoon at Cargill’s side may indicate that Foreman was part of Cargill’s personal guard at field preachings.

When was Foreman taken Prisoner?

Foreman’s testimony does not reveal how, or precisely when, he was taken prisoner. However, his reference to the ‘evil company’ of John Gibb and the three other Sweet Singer men probably indicates that he was captured either before mid-May 1681 when they were captured, or at some point after that and prior to 2 August, as the four Sweet Singer men were held in the Canongate Tolbooth between those dates. (RPCS, VII, 177.)

His listing in August 1681 as one of those suspected of attending field preachings, probably indicates that he was picked up after one of Cargill’s final field preachings between mid May and 10 July. (RPCS, VII, 190.)

His origin in Alloa and a knife found in his possession, which was inscribed ‘For cutting tyrants’ throats’, possibly indicate that he was taken after Cargill’s Devon Common preaching on 26 June, as two Society people were taken in and around Alloa after it and all of those captured after Devon Common shared similar militant views on the assassination of Charles II. (See William Cuthill and William Thomson, and Lawrence Hay, Andrew Pittilloch and Adam Philip.)

It is also possible that he may have been taken after Cargill’s preaching at Auchengilloch on 3 July, as Foreman had been ‘wandering’ close by at Loudoun Hill in early May.

Map of Auchengilloch

Foreman in Prison

On 25 August, 1681, Foreman was listed in the Register of the Privy Council as among those ‘suspected as guilty of conventicles’ who were to be set at liberty due General Thomas Dalyell’s failure to find witnesses against them. He was to be liberated on condition that he found caution, agreed to live orderly and to appear when recalled by the Privy Council.

The full list of prisoners suspected of conventicles to be released were as follows:

‘John Miller in Ma[u]chline, John Gilbert in Loudoun, Andrew Murdoch in Culton, David Rae in Dalrey, John Wyllie in Darvell in Loudoun parish, John Semple at Burskeenim, James Thomson in Covingtoun, Alexander Russell in Randifood, James Bryce in Cutle, Robert Rennie, wright, William Pender, John Gray in Dirngavell, John Inglis, tenant there, James Petticrue in Reidmyre, Robert Davidson, gardener, John Stoddart in St Innes, John Ure in Glasgow, John Cluny, barber, David Farrie in Air, Alexander Anderson, John Hodge, swordslipper in Glasgow, John Gilbert, John Stark, John Miller, Andrew Murdoch, John Wyllie, John Campble in Loudoun, John Anderson in Comerhead, John Corse in Cairnsham, William Dick, James Stewart, Patrick Foreman, John Bryce in Calder, William Young in Egleshem, [Anna Hamilton] the Lady Gilkerscleugh, David Ritchardson in Gilmertoun, and Andrew Howatson’. (RPCS, VII, 189-190.)

Foreman appears to have refused to meet the conditions for his liberation. He was executed at Edinburgh with James Stewart, David Farrie, Robert Garnock and Alexander Russell on 10 October, 1681. A full account of the circumstances of their execution will follow in a later post.

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Text © Copyright Dr Mark Jardine. All Rights Reserved. Please feel free link to this post on Facebook or other social networks or retweet it, but do not reblog in FULL without the express permission of the author @drmarkjardine

~ by drmarkjardine on November 2, 2011.

7 Responses to “‘For Cutting Tyrants’ Throats’: The Capture of Patrick Foreman, Covenanter”

  1. […] executed at the Gallowlee outside of Edinburgh with James Stuart, David Farrie, Robert Garnock and Patrick Foreman on 10 October, 1681. A full account of the circumstances of their execution will follow in a later […]

  2. […] was also listed alongside three of the men who were executed with him, i.e., Alexander Russell, Patrick Foreman and David Farrie. Like them, Stewart was unwilling to meet the conditions for his […]

  3. […] next encounter with the Council would be his last. It was. Garnock was executed with David Farrie, Patrick Foreman, James Stewart and Alexander Russell on 10 October, […]

  4. […] John Kirkland is probably the same individual as the Ensign John Kirkland in the Cameronian Regiment who was killed at the battle of Steenkerque in 1692. Patrick Walker tells a similar story about a bullet going through the hair of Patrick Foreman at Loudoun Hill. […]

  5. […] tells a similar story about a musket ball going through the hair of Patrick Foreman. John Kirkland is also said to have shot a knot of hair off a […]

  6. […] The miraculous passing of musket balls through hair is also reported in the cases of James Nisbet and Patrick Foreman. […]

  7. […] was executed at the Gallowlee outside of Edinburgh with James Stewart, Patrick Foreman, Robert Garnock and Alexander Russell on 10 October, […]

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