The Hidden: Fugitive and Rebel Covenanters in Minnigaff in 1684

•September 1, 2014 • Leave a Comment

Minnigaff Parish

Minnigaff parish in Kirkcudbrightshire, Galloway, bears a distinctive footprint of Presbyterian dissent.

Five landowners in the parish were forfeited for their part in the Bothwell Rising of 1679: Patrick Dunbar, younger of Machermore, Patrick Herron of Little Park, Patrick Murdoch of Cumloden, Anthony McKie of Glencaird, who hid at the White Cairn in the parish, and John Mackie of Larg (after his death).

In 1680, Minnigaff parish was one of the parishes interrogated for information about the whereabout of the traitors behind the Sanquhar Declaration.

In January, 1685, it was the scene of the killings at Caldons. The Edward McKean summarily executed in Carrick in 1685 was probably from the parish.

Alexander Peden preached there in 1685 and the Earl of Hume’s militia were present at Minnigaff in the middle of that year.

Tradition indicates that James Renwick may have preached at the Preaching Howe in the parish and that the Society people may have killed an intelligencer from the parish.

The summons to the circuit court held in Kirkcudbright in October, 1684, mentions two men who were accused of either being at Bothwell, or hearing preachers connected to the rising.

Alexander Heuchan in Bardrochwood.
‘Alexander Heuchan in Bardrokott for being in the rebellion at Bothuell in July seventie nyne;’ (RPCS, IX, 375.)

He appears on the parish list of October, 1684, as ‘Alexr Heuchan, there’ possibly under Strathmaddie to the south of Bardrochwood.

Map of Bardrochwood                    Street View of Bardrochwood

Anthony Dunbar in Craignell.
‘Anthon[y] Dunbar in Craignell for hearing Mr Samuel Arnot and Mr Patrick [or Thomas] Vernor [preach] since Bothuell [in 1679];’ (RPCS, IX, 375.)

He appears on the parish list as ‘Antony Dunbar in Craignew’.

Craignell was a remote location in the parish. It now lies beside Clatteringshaws Loch, a reservoir created in the 1930s.

Map of Craignell                 Street View of Craignell

The summons to the Kirkcudbright court also offers a fleeting glimpse into the networks of kin, friends and neighbours who hid or assisted fugitives either from the parish, or who lived nearby. The following is listed by the fugitive first, in bold, and then those who were accused of converse with them:

1. & 2. James Gordon, younger of Craiglaw, and James Martinson in Glenhapple.
James Gordon was a forfeited fugitive from Kirkcowan parish and James Martinson a fugitive rebel from Penninghame parish. Both parishes lie in Wigtownshire and directly to the west of Minnigaff.

‘Mr James Algeo, wrytter in Moneygalf, for converseing with James Gordone, younger, of Craiglaw, and James Mertinsone in Glenkapell, rebells, about two yeirs since or therby [i.e., in 1682];’ (RPCS, IX, 375.)

Algeo appears on the parish list of late 1684 under the Barony of Larg and town of Minnigaff.

Map of Minnigaff

3. William Stewart, son to the Wadsetter of Larg, Minnigaff parish.
He appears on the published fugitive roll of May, 1684, as ‘William Stuart, son to —— Stuart wadsetter of Larg’ under Wigtownshire. The fugitives in Minnigaff parish were listed under Wigtownshire, rather than Kirkcudbrightshire, on the published roll. (Jardine, ‘United Societies’, II, 219.)

‘John Macqhannell in Gleckmallock for converseing with William Stewart, rebell, about two yeirs since [i.e., in late 1682];’ (RPCS, IX, 375.)

He appears on the parish list of late 1684 in Gleckmalloch in the Barony of Gerlis.

Map of Gleckmalloch              Aerial View of Gleckmalloch

‘Patrick McKie in Gleckmallock for converseing with William Stewart, rebell, about two yeirs since [i.e., in late 1682];’ (RPCS, IX, 375.)

McKie also appears on the parish list in the same household as the above.

ClauchrieClauchrie

‘William Cunninghame in Clauchrie for converseing with William Stewart, rebell, in July, 1681, and with William Kennedie [No.4, below] in January or February last [1684];’ (RPCS, IX, 375.)

Cunningham appears on the parish list as ‘William Cunningham in Clauchre’.

Clauchrie lay to the west of Torbain and close to the home of Patrick Murdoch of Cumloden.

Aerial View of Clauchrie

The William Kennedy that Cunningham was accused of converse with was another fugitive from Wigtownshire.

4. William Kennedy in Barnkirk, Penninghame parish.
He appears on the Fugitive Roll of mid 1684 as ‘William Kennedy, in Barnkirk’. (Jardine, ‘United Societies’, II, 214.)

Barnkirk lies in Penninghame parish, which is located on the western boundary of Minnigaff parish. In the late 1670s, John Welsh, the former minister of Irongray, field preached at Barnkirk.

Map of Barnkirk

‘Mr William McGill, wrytter in Moneygalf, for converseing with William Kennidie, sometyme in Barnkirk, rebell, about the moneth of June last [1684];’ (RPCS, IX, 375.)

He appears on the parish list as ‘William McGill’ under the Barony of Larg and town of Minnigaff.

‘John Roxbrugh in Moneygalf for converseing with William Kennedie, rebell, in January last [1684];’ (RPCS, IX, 375.)

He appears on the parish list of late 1684 with Robert Roxburgh at the top of the list for the Barony of Larg and town of Minnigaff.

‘James Kennedie in Moneygalf for converseing with William Kennedie, rebell, about the moneth of July last [1684];’ (RPCS, IX, 375.)

‘Andrew Herron in Larg, for converseing with William Kennedie, rebell, in May last [1684];’ (RPCS, IX, 375.)

He appears on the parish list under the Barony of Larg and town of Minnigaff.

5. Anthony Stewart, son to the Wadsetter of Larg, Minnigaff parish.
He appears on the published fugitive roll of May, 1684, as ‘Anthony Stuart, his son [of ------ Stuart wadsetter of Larg]’ under Wigtownshire. Anthony was the brother of William Stewart (No.3) and probably the brother of Archibald Stewart (No.6). (Jardine, ‘United Societies’, II, 219.)

‘Robert Walker, violer in Moneygalf, for converseing with Anthon[y] Stewart, rebell, about tuo yeirs since [i.e., late 1682], and with William Kennedie [No.4, above], rebell, about January or February last [1684];’ (RPCS, IX, 375.)

Walker appears on the parish list under the Barony of Larg and town of Minnigaff.

‘Anthon[y] McMillane in Kirrochtrie for converseing with Anthon[y] Stewart, rebell, in January or February last [1684];’ (RPCS, IX, 375.)

McMillan appears on the parish list under the Barony of Gerlis.

Kirrochtrie is Kirroughtree. A later house built in 1719, which is now a hotel, stands on the site.

Map of Kirroughtree

DalnawNear Dalnaw © Iain Thompson and licensed for reuse.

‘Alexander Maktaggart in Dalnae for converseing with Anthon[y] Stewart, rebell, in September, 1683;’ (RPCS, IX, 375.)

MacTaggart appears on the parish list under the Barony of Gerlis.

Dalnae is Dalnaw.

Map of Dalnaw                  Aerial View of Dalnaw

‘Archibald McHarg in Minnivick for converseing with Archibald Stewart, rebell, in January last [1684];’ (RPCS, IX, 375.)

McHarg appears on the parish list in ‘Miniwiek’, i.e., Minniwick.

Minniwick lies to the south east of Glentrool Village.

Map of Minniwick                Aerial View of High Minniwick

Minniwick lies near Glenvernoch, the home of one of the Wigtown Martyrs.

The next entry is fascinating, as Caldons/Caldons Wood was were several killings took place a few months after the summons.

‘John McQhirter in Caldone for converseing with Anthon[y] Stewart, rebell, in March or Apprill last [1684];’ (RPCS, IX, 375.)

McWhirter appears on the parish list under ‘Caldeens’ in the household of Archibald McWhirter and Janet Gordon.

Map of Caldons                Aerial View of Caldons

‘Alexander Thomson in Wood of Crie and Alexander Gibson and William Ker his servants, for converseing with Anthon[y] Stewart, rebell, in March or Apprill last [1684];’ (RPCS, IX, 375.)

All three of the people mentioned appear on the parish list. Thomson is recorded as ‘Alexr Thomson in Cardorcan’.

Map of Wood of Cree                 Aerial View of Wood of Cree

‘Andrew McMillane in Glenmalloch for converseing with Anthon[y] Stewart, rebell, in March or Apprill, 1682;’ (RPCS, IX, 375.)

McMillan appears on the parish list.

Glenmalloch stands beside the Preaching Howe in Minnigaff parish.

Map of Glenmalloch              Aerial View of Glenmalloch

TerreganTerregan

‘John Stewart in Tarchreggan, John McTaggart and Robert Stewart for converseing with Anthon[y] and Archibald Stewarts, rebells, in July, 1683;’ (RPCS, IX, 375.)

They appear on the parish list of late 1684 as ‘John Steuart in Tarregan’ as do ‘Rott Steuart’ and ‘John McTaggart’.

Today, Terregan is an unmarked ruin near the Washing Burn

Map of Terregan

6. Archibald Stewart, son to the Wadsetter of Larg, Minnigaff parish.
The Archibald Stewart that was conversed with at Terregan, see above, was almost certainly the brother of Anthony (No.5) and William Stewart (No.3). He is probably recorded on the Fugitive Roll of May, 1684, as ‘——- Stuart, his son’, i.e., the son of ‘——– Stuart wadsetter of Larg’. (Jardine, ‘United Societies’, II, 219.)

He, too, was mentioned in the summons as a fugitive who had conversed with others:

‘James McGie, cottar in Palgavin, and Michael Maktagart in Buricastle for converseing with Archibald Stewart, rebell, about tuo yeirs [ago, i.e., 1682];’ (RPCS, IX, 375.)

They appear on the parish list as ‘John McKie in Palgouen’ and ‘Michael McTagart in Kirkcastle’ in the Barony of Buchan.

Palgowan lies beside Gleckmalloch, see above.

Map of Palgowan                Aerial View of Palgowan

‘Alexander Watsone in Moneygalf for converseing with Archibald Stewart, rebell, about two yeirs since [i.e., c. late 1682];’ (RPCS, IX, 375.)

Watson appears on the parish list under the Barony of Larg and town of Minnigaff.

‘Alexander Roxbrugh in Moneygalf for converseing with Archibald Stewart, rebell, in July, 1683;’ (RPCS, IX, 375.)

Roxburgh appears on the parish list at the top of the list for the Barony of Larg and town of Minnigaff.

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Text © Copyright Dr Mark Jardine. All Rights Reserved. Please link to this post on Facebook or retweet it, but do not reblog in FULL without the express permission of the author @drmarkjardine

A Great Article on the Sweet Singers

•August 28, 2014 • Leave a Comment

Wolf Craigs WebbWolf Craigs where some of the Sweet Singers were captured © Richard Webb and licensed for reuse.

I discovered this recent article on ‘Walter Ker and the “Sweet Singers”’ by Douglas W. B. Somerset. I heartily recommend this excellent article to everyone with an interest in the Sweet Singers, the Society people and the early history of the American colonies. It is especially strong and fascinating on what happened to the Sweet Singers after banishment.

For more on the Sweet Singers, see here.

The Hidden: Five Fugitive Covenanters in Crossmichael parish

•August 25, 2014 • Leave a Comment

The summons to the circuit court held in Kirkcudbright in October, 1684, offers a fleeting glimpse into the networks of kin, friends and neighbours who hid the Society people.

Ernfillan GlenErnfillan Glen from the north © James Bell and licensed for reuse.

1. John Graham in Chapelerne, Crossmichael parish
He appears on the published fugitive roll of 1684 as ‘John Graham, in Chapelearn, reset and harbour’. (Jardine, ‘United Societies’, II, 217.)

On the complete parish list, probably of October, 1684, ‘John Graham, ab[sent], and his wife and daughter’ are listed with others under ‘Chapelearne’. (RPCS, IX, 582.)

‘Chapelearn’ is Chapelerne.

Map of Chapelerne                 Aerial View of Chapelerne

2. Thomas Graham in Ernfillan, Crossmichael parish
Thomas Graham appears on the published Fugitive Roll as ‘Thomas Grahame, in Ernefillan, reset and harbour’. (Jardine, ‘United Societies’, II, 215.)

A ‘Robert Grahame, in Ernfillan’ was also listed on the roll for ‘reset and harbour’. Ernfillan probably lay in the Ernfillan Glen to the east of Ernfillan Hill.

Both Thomas and Robert Graham and their wives are listed, along with a ‘John Grier, and his wife, ab[sent]’ at the farm of ‘Ironamry Murray’ in the complete parish list of 1684. See Ernambrie, below. Thomas and Robert Graham were probably brothers. (RPCS, IX, 583.)

A ‘Mareon Wilson in Ironphillan,’ and ‘Rosie Bel and her daughters in Ironphillan’ were listed as disorderly in the Crossmichael parish list of October, 1684. It is possible that these women were the wives of those listed on the Fugitive Roll, or the unnamed wives and sisters of the other residents of Ernfillan listed on the complete parish list of 1684. It is also possible that one of them was the mother of Thomas and Robert Graham. (RPCS, IX, 574.)

Map of Ernfillan Glen                  Street View of Ernfillan Glen

According to the summons to the court in Kirkcudbright:

‘John Grahame in Chapellyarn for conversing with John and Thomas Grahams befor they ware relaxed;’ (RPCS, IX, 374.)

The two Grahams who had formerly been fugitives had also appeared in the neighbouring parish of Balmaghie:

‘John Donaldson, miller in Ba[l]magie, for converseing with John and Thomas Grahames befor they war relaxed;’ (RPCS, IX, 374.)

Crofts of CrossmichaelCrofts

Ernfillan lay next to Crofts, a farm connected to two brothers, William and James Graham. William Graham was shot, probably in 1682 or 1684. James Graham was executed in Edinburgh in December, 1684. A ‘Margaret Mackharge in the Crofts’ appears on the parish list of October, 1684, as ‘altogether disorderlie’ (RPCS, IX, 574.)

The following people were listed at Crofts in the complete parish list of 1684: ‘Robert Gordon and his wife and daughter, William MackComb, William Herning and his wife, ex.; John Hannah, Girsel Gordon, Janet Gordon, Marion Horrel, widow, ab[sent].’ (RPCS, X, 583.)

Map of Crofts                  Street View of Crofts

3. William Russell in Ernambrie
He appears on the published Fugitive Roll as ‘William Raffil, in Iron-ambrie, reset and harbour’. (Jardine, ‘United Societies’, II, 216.)

‘Iron-ambrie/‘Arnambrie’, is now called Ernambrie and lies in Crossmichael parish. There are two farms named Ernambrie, Meikle and Nether Ernambrie, which both lie near Ernfillan and Crofts. They appear to have also been known under the names of ‘Ironamry Wilsone’ and ‘Ironamry Murray’

His mother may have lived at ‘Ironminnay’, now Ernmenzie, as ‘William Raphal his mother, ab[sent]’, was listed on the complete parish list of 1684. (RPCS, IX, 583.)

Map of Ernambrie                  Aerial View of Meikle Ernambrie

Street View of Nether Ernambrie

According to the summons:

‘William Hayning in Arnambrie Wilsone, Gilbert Muir in Arminnie, John Makeachter ther, John Anderson in Ironespie, James Cairns ther, Andrew Gerran ther, and ——- Kevan, mother to umquhill William Russall, for constant converseing with William Russell, fugitive;’ (RPCS, IX, 374.)

William Haining appears under ‘William Heug and his wife, ab[sent]’ under ‘Ironamry Wilson’ in the complete parish list of 1684. (RPCS, IX, 583.)

ErnmenzieErnmenzie © Colin Kinnear and licensed for reuse.

‘Gilbert Muir and his wife’ appear under ‘Ironminnay’ in the complete parish list of 1684 with Russell’s mother. (RPCS, IX, 583.)

‘Ironminnay’/‘Arminnie’ is now called Ernmenzie.

Map of Ernmenzie             Street View of Ernmenzie

John Anderson, Andrew Gerron and their wives, and James Cairns and his wife and daughter, all appear under Ernespie on the complete parish list of 1684. (RPCS, IX, 583.)

‘Ironespie’ is now called Ernespie.

Map of Ernespie               Aerial View of Ernspie

A ‘Margaret Hillow in Hilletoun, daughter to Robert Hillow’ was listed as disorderly in the parish list of October, 1684. (RPCS, IX, 574.)

Hillowton lies beside Ernespie

Map of Hillowton

Crossmichael MillCrossmichael Mill

4. Andrew Crock in Erncrogo
Appears on the Fugitive Roll as ‘Andrew Crock, in Iron-crogo, reset and harbour’. (Jardine, ‘United Societies’, II, 216.)

Map of Erncrogo               Street View of Erncrogo

According to the summons:

‘Isobell Grierson att Corsmichaell milne and Nathaniell Gordon in Airds for conversing with Andrew Crock, fugitive;’ (RPCS, IX, 374.)

According to the parish list of October, 1684, ‘Nicholas MacKnight, lady of Cross Michaelmil, and Janet Muirhead, her servant’ and ‘Maron Mackernah at the Mil’ were disorderly persons within the parish. A ‘Grisel Mackernah and her daughter, fugitives’, were also listed. (RPCS, IX, 574.)

The complete parish list of 1684 records ‘Nicholas Macknight, Lady Crossmichael Mill, an aged woman; Janet Muirhead, her servant, ab[sent]’ under Erncrogo, rather than the Mill. It also records that ‘Issobel Greir; ex’ at Erncrogo. (RPCS, IX, 583.)

Crossmichael Mill lies near Erncrogo.

Map of Crossmichael Mill              Street View of Crossmichael Mill

Nathaniel Gordon was presumably one of the two sons of the ‘William Gordon of Airds and his wife’ recorded under Airds on the complete parish list of 1684. (RPCS, IX, 582.)

Airds lies to the west of Erncrogo.

Map of Airds                 Aerial View of Airds

A ‘James Wilson in the Roan’, i.e., Rhone, beside Airds, was listed as disorderly in the parish list of October, 1684. (RPCS, IX, 574.)

Map of Rhone

5. James Garmorie either in Ernanity, or Crossmichael parish.
There are two fugitives named James Garmorie, or Garmarie, listed on the Fugitive Roll of 1684. They are ‘James Garmorie, in the parish of Corsmichaell’ and ‘James Garmarie, in Armanady’, which is probably Ernanity.

The complete parish list of 1684 lists ‘Issobel Germurie, spous to James Germuire, ab[sent]’ under ‘Ironannatie’. (RPCS, IX, 583.)

Ernanity has vanished. However. According to Thomson’s map of the early nineteenth century, Ernanity lay at the road junction below Chapelerne.

Map of Ernanity             Street View towards Ernanity

According to the summons:

‘Robert Garmorie in Meikle Drayburgh for converseing with James Garmorie at the circuit 1683, and hes not hitherto accepted of his Majesties indempnitie;’ (RPCS, IX, 377.)

Robert and his wife are listed on the complete parish list under ‘Muckel Dryburgh’ (RPCS, IX, 582.)

Meikle Drayburgh is Dryburgh in Crossmichael parish. On Roy’s map, Dryburgh lay between Mollance and Dunjarg, rather than where the modern farm lies. It also lay close to Ernanity.

Map of Approximate location of Dryburgh      Aerial View of Approx location of Dryburgh

James Garmorie in Ernanity was also sheltered by his landlord.

‘James Turner of Kirkland for traiterouse resett and converse with James Garmorey in Ironanity, a declaired traitor, and uplifting land rent from him since the circuit court att Drumfries holden in anno eightie thrie;’ (RPCS, IX, 378.)

The complete parish list of 1684 notes under Blackerne that ‘Heares James Turner lifts rent of Ironanatie’. (RPCS, IX, 582.)

Kirkland lay in Crossmichael parish, probably somewhere between the church and Crofts.

Map of Kirkland?

Three people in Kirkland were listed as disorderly on the Crossmichael parish list of October, 1684.They were ‘John MackMunish, son to Janet MackGil in Kirkland’, ‘James Mackmunish, stepson to Janet Mackgil in Kirkland’ and ‘John Wilson, son to Thomas Wilson in Kirkland’. (RPCS, IX, 574.)

A John Garmorie in Trowdale was also listed for reset and harbour on the Fugitive Roll, but is not mentioned in the summons as he appears to have fled his home. (Jardine, ‘United Societies’, II, 216.)

On the complete parish list of 1684, ‘John Graham and a woman servant; John Germurie, fugitive and gone, wife, son and daughter’ are listed under ‘Treudall’. (RPCS, IX, 582.)

In October, 1684, ‘John Germurie his wife in Trendal’ was listed as disorderly by the parish minister. (RPCS, IX, 574.)

Map of Trowdale

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Text © Copyright Dr Mark Jardine. All Rights Reserved. Please link to this post on Facebook or retweet it, but do not reblog in FULL without the express permission of the author @drmarkjardine

The Winter of 1682 to 1683: Comets, Crainroch and the Terrible Conjunction

•August 23, 2014 • Leave a Comment

Great Comet 1680 Comet Ison

And now for something completely different…the Scottish weather in the 1680s. At that time, there was more to the weather than simply a record of rainfall or the motions of the heavens…

‘January 1683. This last winter was very open and warm; no frost at all, excepting some crainroch, or small frost, in some mornings in Janwary. Some flowers were budding in Janwary, as tansey, nettles, and others. A partridge nest was found then with eggs in it; and artichoes in some gardings growing to the bigness of a hen’s egg; pyats and birds were building their nests, and eggs found in some of them. In this year, 1683, astrologers observe that there is a famous conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter in Leo. These planets meet twice or thrice in that fiery regal sign, and astrologically boad great alterations in the World.’ (Law Memorialls, 238-9.)

Lord Fountainhall also commented on the same weather pattern:

‘This year [1683] we ware allarumed with ane strange conjunction was to befall in it, of the 2 planets, Saturne and Jupiter in Leo, observed by Argol and other Astronomers, and our prognosticators who all spoke of it as a thing very ominous, and which had only happened tuise before, since the creation of the world, and portended great alterations in Europe. And from England ther came some observations on the late comets, [and comet of 1680 here] which promised a furder treatise called Catastrophe Mundi;… all which helped to fright timorous melancholy peeple; and Mr. George Sinclar, the mathematician [and author of Satan’s Invisible World Discovered in c1685], did also call this planetary conjunction a very terrible on[e], in his Description of the weather glasse and hygroscope.

Our winter, from November 1682 till March 1683, was rather like a spring for mildnes: if it be to be ascrybed to this conjunction I know not.’ (Lauder, Historical Observes, 88.)

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Text © Copyright Dr Mark Jardine. All Rights Reserved. Please link to this post on Facebook or retweet it, but do not reblog in FULL without the express permission of the author @drmarkjardine

The Devil Attacks in Glasgow in 1684

•August 17, 2014 • Leave a Comment

Coal Devil

The minister for Easter Kilpatrick reports that the presence of a suspected witch in Glasgow Tolbooth led to the Devil attacking both Covenanters and their guards in March and April, 1684:

‘March and Aprile 1684, amongst some prisoners at Glasgow was brought in a woman mala fama:. While she is there, the devil appears in the rooms casting coals at the prisoners and soldiers, jingling the irons and frighting all; when she is removed, he appears no more, which would seem to say, that the devil his appearing in houses and troubling them is not without the hand of some of his warlocks or witches, as instances may be given of it.’

The prisoners allegedly attacked by the Devil were probably many of the prisoners held in Glasgow Tolbooth in June, 1684, who were banished to Carolina.

‘Aprile 1684, Captain Paton [of Meadowhead], Robert Goodwin, maltman in Glasgow, and James M’Lintoek, were taken and brought in prisoners to Glasgow; the last two were taken casually. It is strange how Providence has suffered many of these Bodell men [i.e., at the Bothwell Rising of 1679] to be taken even when not sought for.’ (Law, Memorialls, 283-4.)

For other “wonders” of the 1680s in Scotland, see here.

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Text © Copyright Dr Mark Jardine. All Rights Reserved. Please link to this post on Facebook or retweet it, but do not reblog in FULL without the express permission of the author @drmarkjardine

 

Halley’s Comet over Glasgow, 17 August, 1682.

•August 15, 2014 • 1 Comment

On 17 August, 1682, a new comet appeared in the night sky over Glasgow.

Halley's Comet in 1682

Its arrival and appearance was recorded by the minister of Easter Kilpatrick:

‘August 1682, did a comet appear in the north-west, and in the north-east. Its first appearance at Glasgow was on the 17th of that month; the star was big, and the tail broad and long, at the appearance of four yards, and continued till 20 days was at an end.’ (Law, Memorialls, 234.)

Today, we know the comet as Halley’s Comet, but in 1682, the motions of comets were not known or understood. The minister of Easter Kilpatrick was very interested in comets, astrology and strange portents and wonders. He also observed, the Great Comet of 1680.

For other “wonders” of the 1680s in Scotland, see here.

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Text © Copyright Dr Mark Jardine. All Rights Reserved. Please link to this post on Facebook or retweet it, but do not reblog in FULL without the express permission of the author @drmarkjardine

Rediscovered: The Peden Stone near Auchensoul Hill

•August 13, 2014 • 2 Comments

Congratulations to husband and wife team Ritchie and Lorna Conaghan who have probably rediscovered the Peden Stone near Auchensoul Hill.

Peden Stone Photo 1
Reproduced by the kind permission of Ritchie and Lorna Conaghan.

Over a year ago, I posted on the mystery of the missing Peden Stone near Barr in Carrick.

Over a century ago the stone was described as

‘About 6½ miles from Girvan, and 1½ from Barr village, there stands on a hillside, near the Lane Toll, a large whin boulder which goes under the name of Peden’s Stone, as marking the site of one of his conventicles. This stone is 5 feet in height and 15 [feet] in circumference, and looks down on the Stinchar valley in front, with Auchensole hill on the immediate right, and Shalloch-on-Minnoch on the remote left.’

At some point after that, It was ‘lost’ to history.

A few days ago, I received compelling evidence from Ritchie and Lorna that the stone may have been identified. From the photographs they sent, the stone they found certainly fits the descriptions of the large boulder from over a century ago.

The stone is located at 55°13’26.1″N 4°43’26.2″W or 55.223930, -4.723950

The stone is probably the white dot in the middle of the following aerial views.

Map of the Peden Stone near the Pingerrach Burn

Aerial View of the Peden Stone near the Pingerrach Burn

Here are the photos.

A distinctive whinstone overlooking the Pingerrach Burn running into the Stinchar valley…

Peden Stone Auchensoul Hill Pingerrach Burn

Reproduced by the kind permission of Lorna and Ritchie Conaghan.

Ritchie on stone with Auchensoul Hill on the right and Shalloch on Minnoch in the distance off to the left across the Stinchar valley.

Peden Stone Auchensoul Hill Right
Reproduced by the kind permission of Ritchie and Lorna Conaghan.

Lorna sitting on the Peden Stone taken from the small natural amphitheatre below….

Peden Stone Pingerrach Burn Below

Reproduced by the kind permission of Lorna and Ritchie Conaghan.

The stone sits on the edge of the valley of the Pingerrach Burn. It is also to the east of the ‘Lane Toll’, the place where is was said to be near over a century ago.

Peden Stone Rim of Pingerrach Burn
Reproduced by the kind permission of Ritchie and Lorna and Conaghan.

It located just downstream from the waterfalls of the Pingerrach Burn on the western rim of the valley.

Pingerrach Burn Waterfall
Reproduced by the kind permission of Lorna and Ritchie Conaghan.

Pingerrach was the home of John MacJarrow, a laird forfeited for his part in the Bothwell Rising of 1679. Only the trees from around the farm remain to mark where Pingerrach once lay, which is a short way down the burn from the site of the Peden Stone.

Site of Pingerrach

Alexander Peden is said to have preached at night at Pingerrach in the summer of 1685. The lady of the house is said to have betrayed his presence there to the authorities.

The rediscovery of the Peden Stone is an excellent piece of field work by Lorna and Ritchie. Really, very well done!

The Peden Stone was one of the missing places in the “Prophet Peden Summer Challenge”, if any of you want to make history by finding some of the other ‘lost’ Peden locations.

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Text © Copyright Dr Mark Jardine. All Rights Reserved. Please link to this post on Facebook or retweet it, but do not reblog in FULL without the express permission of the author @drmarkjardine