The Devil Attacks in Glasgow in 1684

•August 17, 2014 • Leave a Comment

Coal Devil

The minister for Easter Kilpatrick reports that the presence of a suspected witch in Glasgow Tolbooth led to the Devil attacking both Covenanters and their guards in March and April, 1684:

‘March and Aprile 1684, amongst some prisoners at Glasgow was brought in a woman mala fama:. While she is there, the devil appears in the rooms casting coals at the prisoners and soldiers, jingling the irons and frighting all; when she is removed, he appears no more, which would seem to say, that the devil his appearing in houses and troubling them is not without the hand of some of his warlocks or witches, as instances may be given of it.’

The prisoners allegedly attacked by the Devil were probably many of the prisoners held in Glasgow Tolbooth in June, 1684, who were banished to Carolina.

‘Aprile 1684, Captain Paton [of Meadowhead], Robert Goodwin, maltman in Glasgow, and James M’Lintoek, were taken and brought in prisoners to Glasgow; the last two were taken casually. It is strange how Providence has suffered many of these Bodell men [i.e., at the Bothwell Rising of 1679] to be taken even when not sought for.’ (Law, Memorialls, 283-4.)

For other “wonders” of the 1680s in Scotland, see here.

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Text © Copyright Dr Mark Jardine. All Rights Reserved. Please link to this post on Facebook or retweet it, but do not reblog in FULL without the express permission of the author @drmarkjardine

 

Halley’s Comet over Glasgow, 17 August, 1682.

•August 15, 2014 • Leave a Comment

On 17 August, 1682, a new comet appeared in the night sky over Glasgow.

Halley's Comet in 1682

Its arrival and appearance was recorded by the minister of Easter Kilpatrick:

‘August 1682, did a comet appear in the north-west, and in the north-east. Its first appearance at Glasgow was on the 17th of that month; the star was big, and the tail broad and long, at the appearance of four yards, and continued till 20 days was at an end.’ (Law, Memorialls, 234.)

Today, we know the comet as Halley’s Comet, but in 1682, the motions of comets were not known or understood. The minister of Easter Kilpatrick was very interested in comets, astrology and strange portents and wonders. He also observed, the Great Comet of 1680.

For other “wonders” of the 1680s in Scotland, see here.

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Text © Copyright Dr Mark Jardine. All Rights Reserved. Please link to this post on Facebook or retweet it, but do not reblog in FULL without the express permission of the author @drmarkjardine

Rediscovered: The Peden Stone near Auchensoul Hill

•August 13, 2014 • 2 Comments

Congratulations to husband and wife team Ritchie and Lorna Conaghan who have probably rediscovered the Peden Stone near Auchensoul Hill.

Peden Stone Photo 1
Reproduced by the kind permission of Ritchie and Lorna Conaghan.

Over a year ago, I posted on the mystery of the missing Peden Stone near Barr in Carrick.

Over a century ago the stone was described as

‘About 6½ miles from Girvan, and 1½ from Barr village, there stands on a hillside, near the Lane Toll, a large whin boulder which goes under the name of Peden’s Stone, as marking the site of one of his conventicles. This stone is 5 feet in height and 15 [feet] in circumference, and looks down on the Stinchar valley in front, with Auchensole hill on the immediate right, and Shalloch-on-Minnoch on the remote left.’

At some point after that, It was ‘lost’ to history.

A few days ago, I received compelling evidence from Ritchie and Lorna that the stone may have been identified. From the photographs they sent, the stone they found certainly fits the descriptions of the large boulder from over a century ago.

The stone is located at 55°13’26.1″N 4°43’26.2″W or 55.223930, -4.723950

The stone is probably the white dot in the middle of the following aerial views.

Map of the Peden Stone near the Pingerrach Burn

Aerial View of the Peden Stone near the Pingerrach Burn

Here are the photos.

A distinctive whinstone overlooking the Pingerrach Burn running into the Stinchar valley…

Peden Stone Auchensoul Hill Pingerrach Burn

Reproduced by the kind permission of Lorna and Ritchie Conaghan.

Ritchie on stone with Auchensoul Hill on the right and Shalloch on Minnoch in the distance off to the left across the Stinchar valley.

Peden Stone Auchensoul Hill Right
Reproduced by the kind permission of Ritchie and Lorna Conaghan.

Lorna sitting on the Peden Stone taken from the small natural amphitheatre below….

Peden Stone Pingerrach Burn Below

Reproduced by the kind permission of Lorna and Ritchie Conaghan.

The stone sits on the edge of the valley of the Pingerrach Burn. It is also to the east of the ‘Lane Toll’, the place where is was said to be near over a century ago.

Peden Stone Rim of Pingerrach Burn
Reproduced by the kind permission of Ritchie and Lorna and Conaghan.

It located just downstream from the waterfalls of the Pingerrach Burn on the western rim of the valley.

Pingerrach Burn Waterfall
Reproduced by the kind permission of Lorna and Ritchie Conaghan.

Pingerrach was the home of John MacJarrow, a laird forfeited for his part in the Bothwell Rising of 1679. Only the trees from around the farm remain to mark where Pingerrach once lay, which is a short way down the burn from the site of the Peden Stone.

Site of Pingerrach

Alexander Peden is said to have preached at night at Pingerrach in the summer of 1685. The lady of the house is said to have betrayed his presence there to the authorities.

The rediscovery of the Peden Stone is an excellent piece of field work by Lorna and Ritchie. Really, very well done!

The Peden Stone was one of the missing places in the “Prophet Peden Summer Challenge”, if any of you want to make history by finding some of the other ‘lost’ Peden locations.

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Text © Copyright Dr Mark Jardine. All Rights Reserved. Please link to this post on Facebook or retweet it, but do not reblog in FULL without the express permission of the author @drmarkjardine

The Forfeited: Covenanters in Renfrewshire

•August 11, 2014 • 2 Comments

WilliamwoodWilliamwood

The Renfrewshire lairds did not play a significant role in the Bothwell Rising of 1679. There are no references to a body of Renfrewshire men present at the battle in the contemporary accounts. There is little doubt that some ordinary folk in the shire participated in the rising. The fugitive roll lists 65 individuals. However, the vast majority of the propertied classes, even those sympathetic to the presbyterian cause, appear to kept backstage as the drama unfolded.

In total, eight Renfrewshire men were forfeited, but probably only one of them was at Bothwell.

The presbyterian historian, the Reverend Robert Wodrow, was a Renfrewshire minister. It was with the propertied class of his own shire, that Wodrow spearheaded his attack on the Restoration regime, even though the shire had not been at the centre of the Presbyterian resistance.

1. James Maxwell of Williamswood, Cathcart parish.
The seventeenth-century house at Williamwood has vanished, but it stood to the north of the present house and golf course and just to the south of Strathpark View.

Aerial View of Williamwood                      Street View of Williamwood

BogtonBogton

2. John Maxwell, younger/portioner of Bogton, Cathcart parish.
The seventeenth-century house and settlement at Bogton formerly lay around what is now the junction of Muirend Road and Windlaw Gardens with Clarkston Road.

Aerial View of Bogton                   Street View of Bogton

Both Williamswood and the portioner of Bogton, appear on the published fugitive roll of 1684, as ‘James Maxwell of Williamswood’ and ‘John Maxwell, son to John Maxwell of Bogton’. (Jardine, ‘United Societies’ II, 202.)

Both men were forfeited in absentia at Glasgow on 15 June, 1683. Wodrow made a considerable effort to vindicate Williamwood and publish his sufferings. He did not make the same effort with Maxwell of Bogton:

‘June 15th [1683] the circuit proceed against James Maxwell of Williamwood, and John Maxwell younger of Bogton, both in the parish of Cathcart in the shire of Renfrew, and in absence. They are indicted for being with the rebels at Bothwell. For probation the advocate produceth the Porteous roll, and dittay against the defenders, who not compearing were outlawed, fugitate, and put to the horn, and all their moveables to be inbrought to the king; but the spite against these good men stops not here. The lords, as the sentence runs, conform to act 11. sess. 1. parl. 2. Char. II. proceed to give further sentence in absence, and find the libel relevant, and remit it to the assize. None of the witnesses, as far as I can see, are ad idem.

John Hart in Braehead of Cathcart depones, he saw them in arms with the rebels in Hamilton, Glasgow, and some other places some time before the engagement. This Hart, as I am told, was in the Porteous roll himself, and was practised upon to witness in this case, by Mr Ezekiel Montgomery sheriff-depute [of Renfrewshire], who had Williamwood’s estate in view, but missed it.’

Alexander Shields called ‘Mr Ezekiel Montgomery, a great fine monger’. (Shields, A Short Memorial, 32.)

Wodrow continues:

‘Another depones, he saw Williamwood in arms at another place. Another depones, he met Williamwood in the road going to the rebels, at the infall on Glasgow; another, that they are held and repute to be rebels, and have taken guilt on them, and fled; but not one of the depositions agreeing as to time and place, the assize bring them in guilty of being with the rebels, and at the late rebellion: and the lords sentence them to be forfeited, and when apprehended to be demeaned as traitors, &c. in common style.

This religious and peaceable gentleman had suffered, as most about him did, very much from the Highland host, January, February, and March, 1678. That same year in June or July, there came a party of soldiers to his bouse, without any orders which they could produce, and indeed he could not be reached by law, for he had managed himself with all caution and circumspection.

The party was commanded by one Scot of Bouniton, and carried off, or caused carry off, fifty bolls of meal, four horses, with the whole household furniture left by the Highlanders, chimneys, pots, pans, crooks, tongs, beds, and bedclothes, and every thing that was portable, without any pretext of law, but that Williamwood was a suspected person. So mad and violent were they in their spite and rage, that they cut and mangled with their swords and other instruments, the beds and other things they could not carry off, and cut down and spoiled most of the young timber about the house; yea, so virulent were they that finding a stack of bear, reckoned to contain about twenty bolls, which they could not get transported, they set fire to it once and again, but being wet it did not kindle. They carried all their spoil to Rutherglen, and there sold it; and though this was once and again represented, no redress could be had, neither can any reason be given for this spoil, but an information given by Mr Finnick, curate of Cathcart, against Williamwood, as a person suspect to be presbyteriau in his judgment, and who would not join with him as one of his elders [in 1677].’

Wodrow’s ‘Mr Finnick’ was Robert Finnie, the minister of Cathcart between 1675 and 1688. Finnie, his wife and children were burnt out their manse at Cathcart on the evening that William Boyd and some Society people proclaimed William of Orange at Glasgow. He later fled to America. (Fasti, III, 381-2.)

Wodrow neglects to mention that a field preaching had been dispersed at Williamwood in May, 1678, i.e., prior to the soldiers arriving in June or July. Several prisoners were taken and a number of them banished. (Crookshanks, History, I, 366, 368.)

The laird of Williamswood was clearly suspected of Presbyterian sympathies and sheltering field preachers. He was also harassed for his irregular marriage and baptisms of his children by outed Presbyterian ministers.

General Thomas DalyellGeneral Thomas Dalyell

‘After this riot committed upon him, being conscious of his own innocence, and knowing he had never been disloyal, or acted any thing against the government, that could justly lay him open to these barbarities, Williamwood plenished his house of new, and continued in it; but in May or June, 1680, a new storm falls on him. Upon a false and invidious information given against him, as having been at Bothwell last year, a party of soldiers came to his house, and, by order from general [Thomas] Dalziel, seized him, and brought him prisoner to a kind of camp which was [nearby] at Newlands, where he was kept prisoner some days, and then carried into Glasgow tolbooth, and from thence to Edinburgh, where he was once and again brought before the council, and, no probation being adduced of his being at Bothwell-bridge, he was set at liberty upon bond to compear before the council upon the first of September.

Accordingly at that diet [in September, 1680] he appeared, and no witnesses being offered, his bail was continued till the second of November.

At that time [in November, 1680] he went in again to Edinburgh, and no proof being adduced, upon paying a little money for fees, &c. he got up his bond from the clerks, and came home and lived peaceably at his house, paying all taxes and impositions now a-going, when required.

Things went on pretty smoothly with him, till November next year [i.e., 1681], when Thomas Kennoway, of whom above [he was later assassinated by the Society people in late 1684], came with a general commission in writ from one Carmichael at Edinburgh, as donatar to all the rebels’ escheats in the shire of Renfrew, and brought a party of soldiers with him to the house of Williamwood.

It was in vain to tell them he was no rebel, that he had been liberate by the council last year, and lived peaceably since. They had him, as they said, in their commission, and unless he had been master of a force equal to theirs, there was no repelling this violence, or remedy for him. He had sought redress before, but all doors were shut to presbyterians, so the whole of his moveables were seized, and soldiers left to stay in the house, until they were carried off by countrymen, whom they ordinarily forced to such pieces of service. However, finding Kennoway was as much for money as moveables, Williamwood compounded with him, and gave him a very considerable sum, and so was delivered from the soldiers.

When thus by long experience he found there was no safety or protection to be had from the malice of Mr Finnick the incumbent [minister], notwithstanding, in obedience to the laws, he went to church and heard him, this gentleman thought good to set his land to tenants, and live himself as privately as he could with his family.

When ordering his affairs thus, Mr Ezekiel Montgomery, sheriff-depute of Renfrew, who had harassed him formerly for irregular marriage and baptisms, hearing of this, and fearing he should thus get out of his reach, applied to him, and sought from him, under pretext of a loan, (but he knew well it was never to be paid again,) the sum of two thousand two hundred merks, which the sheriff alleged the government owed him, and he could not command it at present, when he had important business to do with it, and plainly told him, if he gave it him not he would inform against him, and prove as much as would cost him twice that sum he now sought. These were the methods of the under-agents of the government at this time, and some greater men than sheriff deputes were not altogether free of them.

Williamwood being fully conscious of his innocence peremptorily refused the proposal, yet considering he had a cunning and dangerous enemy to deal with, and having some relations in Ireland, he began to resolve upon transporting himself and his family thither, that for some time he might be out of harm’s way.

Accordingly, he went over to Ireland to his brother-in-law, Mr Andrew Rowan, an episcopal minister there, and stayed some mouths, that he might settle matters in order to the bringing over his family. While in Ireland, an indictment is left at his house, of the date ____ the day of ______ to compear before the lords of justiciary [at Glasgow in June, 1683].

Neither he nor his wife living in the house, but a tenant, the paper was neglected, and not heard of till too late.

Meanwhile, Mr [Ezekiel] Montgomery the sheriff-depute is as good as his promise, and dealt with several persons who were in the Porteous roll for being at Bothwell, to depone they saw Williamwood there, promising to get them assoilied, and their names put out of the roll. Many refused, and would not perjure themselves to get free.

At length he fell upon one Hart, as we have seen, who was in the roll, but a profane vagabond, who stuck at nothing, and another like him, to whom, it is said, he gave money, and, by his interest in managing the roll, got Hart’s name scored out, and they deponed they saw Williamwood with the rebels when in arms, either at Glasgow, Rutherglen, or somewhere. Whereupon the justiciary passed the sentence of death and forfeiture upon him, in absence, [at Glasgow on 15 June, 1683] before he ever so much as knew there was dittay against him, being in Ireland; and his estate was given to provost Johnston in Glasgow, and his wife and six small children put to shift for their sustenance and bread, till the happy revolution.

And to put all the sufferings of this good man together, his wife, January, 1684 [probably an error of 1685], was harassed and persecuted with many others, because she did not appear before the courts then holden, and swear the oath of abjuration [which renounced the Societies’ war of assassinations and was pressed in January, 1685]; and, because she had not delivered her husband’s papers to the said donatar Johnston, for much of that year she was obliged to hide and flee from one place to another for safety, till through toil and grief she died in November [1685?], and exchanged a present miserable lot for a comfortable eternity.

Her six small children were in a very destitute case, their father being forth of the kingdom, and under sentence of death, and they continued under difficulties in abundance, till the general deliverance at the revolution [in 1688].

Nevertheless, since that time the estate of Williamwood is in better circumstances than ever it was, and the persecutors, Finnick and Montgomery, are extinct, and their families, for any thing I know. Many kind retributions of providence to honest sufferers at this time, might be remarked. This instance I have given at the greater length, because I have it fully documented, and it tends not a little to open up the spirit and wickedness of these times.’ (Wodrow, History, III, 485-7.)

Duchal CastleDuchal Castle © wfmillar and licensed for reuse.

3 & 4. John Porterfield of Duchal, Kilmacolm parish, and Alexander Porterfield of Fulwood.
Porterfield was the brother of a forfeited rebel from the Pentland Rising of 1666. For legal reasons, Duchal’s forfeiture comprehended the estate of his son, Alexander Porterfield of Fulwood.

He lived at Duchal Castle, rather than at the house constructed in 1710.

Map of Duchal Castle

From the later confession of his son, it is clear that Duchal sheltered presbyterian ministers and held several house conventicles at his home. The authorities appear to have suspected that Duchal’s Presbyterian sympathises extended to action in support of the movement.

Both Wodrow and tradition claim that Duchal was the victim of operations, sometimes covert, to discover him.

According to Wodrow, an intelligencer guided a raid to Duchal in search for fugitives and preachers, perhaps in 1681. (Wodrow, History, III, 249.)

A local tradition also claims that Duchal horsewhipped two troopers who were covertly sent under the guise of fugitives to gather information on Duchal. (Wodrow, History, IV, 160n.)

At the age of seventy, Duchal was imprisoned on 24 July, 1683, with many others for rebellion, reset and converse with rebels or other treasonable crimes. (Wodrow, History, III, 466.)

A year later, Duchal’s problems were compounded by the appeance of his second son, Alexander Porterfield of Fulwood, whose estate lay in Houston parish, before the Lords at Glasgow. Fulwood claimed he was not a heritor, however, the Lords rejected his claim, as his father had made a disposition of his lands at Fulwood to him, and order him to give oaths as a heritor. The house at Fulwood, lay to the west of Fulwood Mains.

Map of Fulwood

Fulwood confessed to converse with his forfeited uncle and attending several house conventicles at his father’s house at Duchal.

‘He was ordered to sign his deposition, which he did, and was kept prisoner at Glasgow until he found caution, and gave bond to compear at Edinburgh, November 20th [1684], if called, or otherwise to enter himself prisoner within the tolbooth of Edinburgh, under the penalty of 10,000 merks, in case of failie. Accordingly he was at Edinburgh, the said day, and, not being called, he entered prisoner, and, as we heard, with the rest of the gentlemen his neighbours, was called and fined in forty thousand pounds, and remitted back to the tolbooth, till he should pay the said sum. There he continued about fourteen months’. (Wodrow, History, IV, 145-6.)

Fulwood’s arrival at Edinburgh coincided with the council ordering father’s trial in Edinburgh. A few days before on 17 November, Duchal had confessed that both he and his son’s neighbour, Cunningham of Craigends, had met Sir John Cochrane of Ochiltree in Edinburgh in late 1682 or early 1683, who had requested that each of them give £50 Sterling for the relief of the country’s most notorious forfeited exile, the earl of Argyll.

The day before the trial, the council recommended to the justiciary to leave the time and place of Duchal’s execution to the King. Clearly, the council intended to ensure that if he was convicted that his execution would be delayed and that the ultimate decision to hang him lay with the council. The most high-profile charge against Duchal was that he had failed to report being asked by Ochiltree for £50. However, Duchal was also indicted for the reset and converse of his forfeited brother, who appears to have lived quite openly, and for reseting George Holm, a Bothwell rebel. The latter appears on the published fugitive roll of May, 1684, as ‘——- Holm, son to George Holm, officer of Duchal’.

One 29 November, Duchal was found guilty by his own confession, forfeited and sentenced to death at a time and place of the King’s choosing.

Duchal and Fulwood supplicated the council for their release on 22 March, 1685. Fulwood was released and Duchal, after initial refusal, finally confined to Edinburgh on 23 July.

Both Duchal and his son’s forfeited estates were granted to the earl of Melfort, a cousin of Duchal, who profited by leasing the estate back to Duchal and Fulwood. (Wodrow, History, IV, 137-141, 212; Jardine, ‘United Societies’, II, 203.)

James Renwick later preached at Craig Minnan on Duchal Moor in September, 1687. Among his audience was Robert Wallace from Houston parish. It is possible that Renwick’s preaching either exploited, or came about because of, local tensions about the forfeiture in which a presbyterian laird was replaced by a Catholic earl. Craig Minnan lies on the boundary between Kilmacolm parish and Lochwinnoch parish.

5. James Wilson in Mosshead of Lochwinnoch, Lochwinnoch parish.
Wilson was probably the last individual forfeited for participation in the Bothwell Rising. Wilson was brought before the council in March, 1687, with several others in his locality for treasonable mustering at Middleton Hill in Lochwinnoch parish in the week before the battle of Bothwell Bridge in June, 1679. All of the others accused with him were tried and found not guilty. Wilson did not face a full trial at that time. While the others accused chose to face inquest, Wilson chose to renounce and was ordered to be held in prison until he renounced. He was probably forfeited soon after. (CST, XII, 523-68.)

Wodrow does not mention Wilson’s forfeiture in his abbreviated description of the trial. (Wodrow, History, IV, 404-5.)

Some of the five fugitives from Lochwinnoch parish on the published roll of 1684 faced trial with Wilson. They were James Caldwell in Risk and James Niven, also in Risk. One other, Hugh Love in Middleton, was recorded as deceased in 1687. (Jardine, ‘United Societies’, II, 203.)

Map of Risk

Middleton Hill, beside Middleton, was where the mustering was supposed to have taken place.

Map of Middleton

Wilson and his fellow accused were not the only heritors in Lochwinnoch parish held by the authorities. In late 1684, several heritors from there were allegedly robbed while being held in Stirling Castle for refusing to test and bond at Glasgow. Some where later sent to Dunnottar.

Lochwinnoch parish is also where the Peden Stone at Linthills is found. The Peden Stone is where, somewhat confusingly given its name, James Renwick is said to have preached. In a letter of 3 May, 1686, Renwick mentions that he had received unexpected calls to field preach from Renfrew. He may have preached in Lochwinnoch parish between mid 1686 and September, 1687. (Houston (ed), Letters, 193.)

He certainly preached on the boundary of Lochwinnoch parish at Craig Minnan in September, 1687.

Three other Renfrewshire men from Eastwood parish were forfeited before their executions. They were George Jackson in 1684 and James Algie and John Park in 1685.

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Text © Copyright Dr Mark Jardine. All Rights Reserved. Please link to this post on Facebook or retweet it, but do not reblog in FULL without the express permission of the author @drmarkjardine

The Forfeited: Covenanters in Cumbernauld

•August 5, 2014 • Leave a Comment

The forfeited Covenanters of Dunbartonshire were a rare breed. Only two individuals were forfeited for their part in the Bothwell Rising of 1679. Both lived close to the march boundary of Cumbernauld parish with New Monkland parish in Lanarkshire and Slammanan parish in Stirlingshire, which were rebel strongholds.

Cat CraigCat Craig

1. John Russell of Cat Craig, Cumbernauld parish.

Map of Cat Craig               Aerial View of Cat Craig

2. John Russell of Arns, Cumbernauld parish.

Map of Arns               Street View of Arns

Both men were forfeited in absentia at a late date, the 6 May, 1685:

‘John Russel of Catcraig, and John Russel of Arnes in Dumbartonshire, are found guilty by the assize, of being in arms with the rebels at Bothwell. The two last are sentenced to be executed to death, &c. when apprehended, and all the three [including the deceased John Mackie of Larg] forfeited, their blood tainted, &c. in common form.’ (Wodrow, History, IV, 234.)

Garbethill MuirGarbethill Muir © Richard Webb and licensed for reuse.

The sons of one of them were listed on the fugitive roll of May, 1684, under Garbethill, the farm which lies between Arns and Cat Craig. They were ‘James Russel, son to John Russel in Garbethills’, ‘John Russel, son to John Russel in Garbethills’, and ‘George Russel, son to John Russel in Garbethills’. (Jardine, ‘United Societies’, II, 192.)

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The Forfeited Covenanters, 1679 to 1688

•July 28, 2014 • Comments Off

Scottish Parliament

In 1690, the Scottish Parliament passed an act rescinding most of the forfeitures which had taken place under the Restoration Stewart regime. The published list is not perfect. It contains minor errors, duplicates some names and fails to mentions some of those who were executed.

Below are the 331 names listed in the Act for the period between 1679 and 1688.

I have added numbers and identified, where possible, the parish where the forfeited came from. You can compare my revised list with the full act here. (RPS, 1690/4/80.)

[Forfeited 1679]
1. Mr John King [Executed 1679],
2. Mr John Kidd [Executed 1679],

3. Andrew Sword [Borgue parish. Executed 1679],
4. Thomas Brown [Edinburgh. Executed 1679],
5. John Waddell [New Monkland or Shotts parish. Executed 1679],
6. John Clyde [Kilbride parish. Executed 1679],
7. James Wood [Loudoun parish. Executed 1679],

[Forfeited 1680]
8. Patrick MacDougall of Freuch [Stoneykirk parish],
9. & 10. Mr William [Gordon (d.1679)] and Alexander Gordon, elder and younger of Earlston [Dalry parish],
11. Mr William Ferguson of Ketloch [Glencairn parish],
12. James Gordon of Craichie, younger [Kirkcowan parish],
13. Patrick Dunbar, younger of Machriemore [Minnigaff parish],
14. William Gordon of Culvennan [Kirkcowan parish],
15. John Bell of Whiteside [Anwoth parish. Summarily executed 1685],
16. John Gibson of Auchencheyne [Glencairn parish],
17. [John] Gibson, younger of Ingliston [Glencairn parish. Summarily executed 1685],
18. [William] Gordon of Dundeugh [Carsphairn parish],
19. [...] Grier of Dalgonar [Dunscore parish. Probably a repetition of Samuel Grierson of Dalgonar],
20. [Robert] Smith of Kilroy [Dunscore parish],
21. [Robert] MacClelland of Balmagreichen [Borgue parish],

22. Thomas Bogle of Boglehole [Old Monkland parish],
23. James Baird of Dungeonhill [Old Monkland parish],

24. [...] Gordon of Craigie [i.e., James Gordon, younger, of Craiglaw],
25. [Robert] Lennox of Irelandton [Twynholm parish. Summarily executed 1685],
26. [...] Gordon of Baccharrowe [i.e., Barharrow, Borgue parish],
27. John Fullerton of Auchinhoe [Borgue parish],
28. David MacCulloch, son to Ardwell [Anwoth parish],
29. William Whitehead of Millhouse [Kirkcudbright parish?],
30. John Welsh of Cornlee [Irongray parish],
31. [John] Neilson of Corsock [Parton parish],
32. Robert MacClelland of Barscobe [Balmaclellan parish],
33. Samuel MacClelland, his brother [Balmaclellan parish?],
34. [...] Fullerton of Nethermill [?],
35. George MacCartney of Blaiket [Urr parish],
36. [...] Gordon of Garrerie [Kells parish],
37. Alexander Gordon of Knockgray [Carsphairn parish],
38. [Patrick] Heron of Littlepark [Minnigaff parish],
39. [William] Gordon of Holmes [Balmaclellan parish. Perhaps duplicate of his son. See No. 155],
40. [John] Gordon of Overbarr [Dalry parish],
41. John MacNaught of Culquha [Tongland parish],
42. Patrick Murdoch, alias laird of Murdoch [aka. of Cumloden. Minnigaff parish],

43. [John] Binning of Dalvennan [Straiton parish],
44. Major Alexander Ross [near New Monkland parish?],

45. John Malcolm [Dalry parish. Executed 1680],
46. Archibald Alison [Evandale parish. Executed 1680],
47. James Skene, brother to the laird of Skene [Skene parish. Executed 1680],
48. John Potter [Uphall parish. Executed 1680],
49. Archibald Stewart [Bo’ness parish. Executed 1680],
50. Isobel Alison [Perth parish. Executed 1681],
51. Marion Harvie [Bo’ness parish. Executed 1681],

[Teviotdale Forfietures]
52. Thomas Turnbull of Standhill [Hawick parish],
53. Walter Turnbull of Bewlie [Lilliesleaf parish],

[Forfeitures and Executions]
54. John Murray [Bo’ness parish],
55. Christopher Miller [Gargunnock parish. Executed 1681],
56. William Gogar [Bo’ness parish. Executed 1681],
57. Robert Sangster [Stirlingshire. Executed 1681],

[Lanarkshire Forfeitures]
60. David White, smith in Lanark [Lanark parish],
61. Gideon Weir, gunsmith there [in Lanark, Lanark parish],
62. David Gibson there [in Lanark, Lanark parish],
63. John Wilson, writer in Lanark [Lanark parish. Executed 1683],
64. Mr Thomas Pillans [in Lanark, Lanark parish],
65. James Lawrie, writer there [in Lanark, Lanark parish],
66. Archibald Simpson there [in Lanark, Lanark parish],
67. Thomas Lauchlan there [in Lanark, Lanark parish],
68. William Ferguson there [in Lanark, Lanark parish],
69. John Sempill, mason there [in Lanark, Lanark parish],
70. Thomas Inglis there [in Lanark, Lanark parish],
71. Alexander Anderson there [in Lanark, Lanark parish],
72. John Pomphray there [in Lanark, Lanark parish. Probably summarily executed 1685],
73. John Jack in Nemphlar [Lanark parish],
74. William Peden, mason in Lanark [Lanark parish],
75. Robert Lockhart of Birkhill [Lesmahagow parish],

76. Gavin Hamilton of Hill,

77. James Weir of Johnshill [Lesmahagow parish],
78. John Shiel in Overwaterhead [Lesmahagow parish],
79. John Haddow in Douglas [Douglas parish],
80. James White in Douglas [Douglas parish],
81. William Falconer in Hamilton [Hamilton parish],
82. Arthur Tacket there [in Hamilton parish. Executed 1684],
83. Gavin Weatherspoon of Heather Know [Old Monkland parish],
84. John Easton, portioner of Gairnequeen [Old Monkland parish],
85. Robert Goodwin, maltman in Glasgow,
86. James Cunningham, merchant there,
87. Isaac Blackwell, son to Thomas Blackwell there [in Glasgow],
88. William Riddell, feuar in Rutherglen [Rutherglen parish],
89. Robert Fleming of Auchinfine [Kilbride parish],
90. John Hamilton, feuar of Rogerton [Kilbride parish],
91. Thomas Craig, feuar in Jackton [Kilbride parish],
92. John Miller, younger of Long Calderwood [Kilbride parish],
93. John Wilson of Highflat [Kilbride parish],
94. Robert Steven, feuar of Newlands [Kilbride parish],
95. John Steel of Windhill [Evandale parish],
96. John Cochrane of Craige [Evandale parish],
97. James Dykes of Halburne [Evandale parish],
98. John Carnduff, feuar in Jackton [Kilbride parish],
99. Thomas Paton at the old kirk of Cambusnethan [Cambusnethan parish],
100. John Whitelaw in Bothwellshields [Shotts parish. Executed 1683. See also No. 187],
101. John Paterson there [in Bothwellshields. Shotts parish],
102. John White of Neuk [Lesmahagow parish],
103. Thomas Lynn of Blairachine [Lesmahagow parish],

[Ayrshire/Carrick Forfeitures]
104. Gilbert MacIlraith of Dumorchie [Barr parish],
105. Thomas MacJarrow of Barr [Barr parish];
106. John MacJarrow of Pingerrach [Barr parish],
107. Henry MacGarroch of Alton Albany [Barr parish],
108. George MacLure of Bennan [Barr parish],
109. [Hugh] MacIlraith of Auchenflower [Ballantrae parish],
110. John MacAlexander of Dumochrein [Dailly parish],
111. [John] MacMichan, son to [...] MacMichan of Killstinnian [Colmonell parish],
112. Allan Bowie, son to [...] Bowie of Drumley [Tarbolton parish],

[Executions and Forfeitures]
113. Adam Philip [Kilconquhar parish],
114. Andrew Patillo [Largo parish. Executed 1681],
115. Laurence Hay [Kilconquhar parish. Executed 1681],
116. Mr Donald Cargill [Executed 1681],
117. Mr James Boig [Executed 1681],
118. Mr Walter Smith [Executed 1681],
119. William Thomson [St Ninians parish. Executed 1681],
120. William Cuthill [Bo’ness parish. Executed 1681],
121. Patrick Forman [Alloa parish. Executed 1681],
122. Robert Garnock [Stirling. Executed 1681],
123. David Farrie [Ayr. Executed 1681],
124. James Stewart [Cambusnethan parish. Executed 1681],
125. Alexander Russell [Falkirk parish. Executed 1681],

126. William Murray of Meadowhead [or ‘Moodiehead’, Bo’ness parish?],

127. Archibald [Campbell], earl of Argyll [Executed 1685],

[Stirlingshire Forfeitures]
128. George Arthur of Bonnanhill, portioner of Balquhatstone [Slammanan parish],
129. James Ure of Shargerton [Kippen parish],
130. Donald Connell, portioner of Buchlyvie [Kippen parish],
131. Thomas Russell of Middlerig [Slammanan or Muiravonside parish],
132. Edward Marshall, heritor of Kaemuir [Muiravonside parish. Executed 1685],
133. John Taylor, elder in Holehouse [Slammanan parish],
134. John Shaw, son to John Shaw of Easter Greenhill [Slammanan parish],
135. George Mochrie, fiar of Stonerigg [Slammanan parish?],

136. Thomas Ferguson of Finnarts [Ballantrae parish],

[Forfeitures and Executions]
137. William Harvie in Lanark [Lanark parish. Executed 1682],
138. Christian Fyfe [Fife],
139. Robert Gray, Englishman [Northumberland. Executed 1682],
140. James Robertson [Stonehouse parish. Executed 1682],
141. John Finlay [Kilmarnock parish. Executed 1682],
142. William Cochrane [Evandale parish. Executed 1682],

[Dumfriesshire and Galloway Forfeitures]
143. Samuel Grierson of Dalgonar [Dunscore parish. Probable repetition of No. 19],
144. William Grierson of Lochquhare [Keir parish],
145. James Welsh of Little Cluden [Irongray parish],
146. John Brown, heritor in Newtown [of Galloway? Kells parish],
147. Henry MacCulloch of Barholm [Kirkmabreck parish],
148. Anthony Mackie of Cloncaird [Minnigaff parish],
149. [...] Hay of Arriallane [Mochrum parish],
150. Andrew Martin of Little Airies [Kirkinner parish],
151. [...] Fullerton of Senwick [Borgue parish],
152. [David] Halliday of Mayfield [Twynholm parish. Summarily executed in 1685],
153. Mr Thomas Verner, minister,
154. Mr Samuel Arnott, minister,
155. George Gordon, second son to Holmes [Balmaclellan parish],
156. Alexander MacNaught, younger of Overton [of Dalry. Dalry parish],
157. [...] Crichton of Hole of Balquhasie [Kirkmabreck parish],
158. Alexander Hunter of Culquhasen [Glenluce parish],
159. Alexander Mackie of Drumbowie [Kirkcowan parish],

[Execution and Forfeitures]
160. Alexander Hume, portioner of Hume [Hume parish. Executed 1682],
161. [Thomas] Cunningham of Montgreenan [Kilwinning parish],
162. William Lawrie of Blackwood [Lesmahagow parish],
163. John Menzies of Dalquhairn [or ‘Dalvane’, Slammanan parish],
164. Robert Hamilton, brother to the laird of Preston,

[Glasgow Circuit Forfeitures]
165. William Boig in Auchinreoch in Campsie parish [Executed 1683],
166. John Russell, portioner of Eastfield [Shotts or New Monkland parish],
167. Gavin Paterson, feuar in Bothwellshields [Shotts parish],
168. Robert Russell of Windyedge [Shotts parish],
169. Mr Thomas Hamilton of Raith [New Monkland parish],
170. James Hamilton of Parkhead [New Monkland parish],
171. James Maxwell of Williamswood [Cathcart parish],
172. John Maxwell, portioner of Bogton [Cathcart parish],

[Ayrshire Forfeitures]
173. Robert [or John] Lockhart of Bankhead [Loudoun parish],
174. Andrew Brown of Duncanziemere [Auchinleck parish],
175. Mr Matthew Campbell of Waterhouse [or Waterhaughs, Galston parish],
176. James Brown [son of James Brown, portioner] in Newmills [Loudoun parish],
177. John Paterson in Daldilling [Sorn parish],
178. Adam Reid [portioner] in Mauchline [Mauchline parish],
179. John Crawford of Tarshaw [Tarbolton parish],
180. John Wilson, younger [or portioner] of Lindsayhill [i.e., Lindsayshill, Sorn parish],
181. Mr John Halbert [Cumnock parish],
182. James MacNeilly of Auchnairne [Auchairne?, Ballantrae parish],
183. Colonel John Burns [Ayrshire],

[Forfeitures]
184. Robert Hamilton of Monkland [New Monkland parish],
185. Edward Aiken [Crawfordjohn parish],

[Executions]
186. Mr John Dick, son to David Dick, writer in Edinburgh [Executed 1683],
187. John Whitelaw [New Monkland parish. Executed 1683. Duplicate of No. 100],
188. Arthur Bruce [Dalserf parish. Executed 1683],
189. William Cochrane [Lesmahagow parish. Executed 1683],
190. George Martin, sometime notary and reader at Dally [Daily parish. Executed 1684],
191. John Kerr, wright sometime in the parish of Hunnum [aka. Gilry. Hownam parish. Executed 1684],
192. James Muir at the Crossford boat [Lesmahagow parish. Executed 1684],

[Forfeitures]
193. Henry Hall of Haughhead [(d.1680)],
194. Mr John Menzies of Wintercleuch or Hangingshaw [Crawford parish],
195. [...] Calderhead, younger of [or in] Windyedge [Shotts parish],
196. Henry Boswell, portioner of Dunsystoune [Shotts parish],
197. Robert Steel, portioner of Stain [Cambusnethan parish],
198. John Meek, portioner of Hunsellwood [Carstairs parish],
199. James Howison, maltman in Lanark [Lanark parish],
200. John Cochrane of Waterside [possibly an error for ‘William Greinshiells of Watersyde’],

[Executions]
201. John Paton of Meadowhead, called Captain Paton [Fenwick parish],
202. Thomas Harkness in Locherben [Closeburn parish. Executed 1684],
203. Andrew Clark, sometime in Leadhills in Crawford parish [Executed 1684],
204. Samuel MacEwan in Glencairn parish [Executed 1684],
205. James Nicol in Peebles-shire [Peebles parish. Executed 1684],
206. William Young in Lanarkshire [Eaglesham or Evandale parish. Executed 1684],

[Forfeiture]
207. John Hutcheson, portioner of Newbattle [Newbattle parish],

[Executions]
208. John Sempill [Glassford parish. Executed 1684],
209. John Watt [Kilbride parish. Executed 1684],
210. Gabriel Thomson [Kilbride parish. Executed 1684],
211. George Jackson [Eastwood parish. Executed 1684],
212. Thomas Wood [Kirkmichael parish. Executed 1684],
213. James Graham [Crossmichael parish. Executed 1684],
214. Thomas Robertson [Edinburgh. Executed 1684],
215. Mr Robert Baillie of Jerviswood [Lanark parish. Executed 1684],
216. Walter [Scott], sometime earl of Tarras [Roberton parish, Roxburgh],
217. Robert Miller in the parish of Rutherglen [Executed 1685],
218. Robert Pollock, shoemaker in Glasgow [Executed 1685],

[Forfeitures]
219. Thomas Kennedy of Grange [Maybole parish],
220. John Porterfield of Duchal [Kilmacolm parish],
221. John Mackie of Larg [Minnigaff parish],
222. John Russell of Colcraig [or Cat Craig, Cumbernauld parish],
223. John Russell of Arns [Cumbernauld parish],

[Glasgow Executions]
224. John MacQuarrie [Lesmahagow parish. Executed 1683],
225. James Smith [Lesmahagow parish. Executed 1683],
226. James Lawson [Lesmahagow parish. Executed 1684],
227. Alexander Wood [Bothwell parish. Executed 1684],

[Ayrshire Forfeitures]
228. Alexander Vallance,
229. James Kirkwood,

[Argyll Faction Forfeitures]
230. Sir John Cochrane of Ochiltree,
231. Sir Patrick Hume of Polwarth [Polwarth parish, Berwickshire],
232. George Pringle of Torwoodlee [Stow parish, Selkirkshire] ,
233. Mr Robert Martin, late clerk to the justice court,
234. Mr Robert Ferguson, sometime chaplain to [Anthony Ashley Cooper], earl of Shaftesbury,
235. Thomas Stewart of Coltness [Cambusnethan parish],
236. Sir Hugh Campbell, elder of Cessnock [Galston parish],
237. Sir George Campbell thereof [i.e. of Cessnock],
238. George [Melville], lord Melville [Collessie parish, Fife],
239. David Montgomery of Lainshaw [Stewarton parish],
240. Richard Rumbold, Englishman [Executed 1685],
241. David Stewart, son to Thomas Stewart of Coltness [Cambusnethan parish],
242. Mr William Spence, servant to the late earl of Argyll,
243. William Denholm of Westshiels [Carnwath parish],
244. James Stewart [of Goodtrees], advocate,
245, Mr Gilbert Elliott [Edinburgh],

246. Thomas Stoddart [Executed 1685],
247. James Wilkinson [Executed 1685],
248. Matthew Bryce [Executed 1685],

249. Archibald Campbell,
250. David Law,
251. Gavin Russell,

252. Mr Thomas Archer, preacher,
253. Mr Charles Campbell, son to the late earl of Argyll,
254. Archibald Campbell, son to Lord Neil Campbell,
255. Mr John Campbell, son to the late earl of Argyll,

[Execution]
256. John Nisbet called of Hardhill [Loudoun parish. Executed 1685],

[Argyll Faction Forfeitures]
257. Andrew Fletcher of Saltoun [Saltoun parish, Haddingtonshire],
258. Sir Duncan Campbell of Auchinbreck,
259. Donald Campbell of Barbreck,
260. John Campbell, younger of Nellfort,
261. John Campbell of Knapp,
262. Mr Alexander Campbell, advocate,
263. Dougall Campbell of Kilberry, younger,
264. the deceased Alexander MacMillan of Drummore,
265. Donald MacNeil of Crear,
266. Duncan Campbell of Carradale,
267. Alexander Campbell of Otter,
268. Major [...] Henderson,
269. Captain John Fullerton,
270. Mr George Wishart, preacher,
271. Mr Alexander Hastie,
272. Robert Elphinstone of Lopness,
273. Captain John Henry,
274. Patrick Campbell, son to Mr John Campbell, called Black Patrick,
275. Patrick MacArthur of Inchrenie,
276. Archibald MacIlvernock of Ob,
277. Iver MacIver, alias Campbell of Arnish,
278. the deceased Dougall MacAvish of Dunardry,
279. Neil Campbell of Evanachan,
280. [...] Campbell of Kildavanan,
281. [Daniel] Kerr of Kersland, younger,
282. John Campbell of Dargachie,
283. Robert Campbell, his brother,
284. Alexander MacArthur, captain to the late Argyll,
285. & 286. Colin and Duncan Campbell, elder and younger of Allangreg,
287. James [Scott], sometime duke of Buccleuch and Monmouth,
288. Donald Campbell of Bellnabie,
289. Archibald Campbell of Danna,
290. Duncan Campbell of Culgaltro,
291. Angus MacLauchlan of Barnagad,
292. Allan MacLauchlan of Dunard,
293. Colin Campbell of Blairintibbert,
294. the deceased Donald Campbell of Drumfine,
295. Donald Campbell of Ob,
296. Duncan Campbell, elder of Drumfine,
297. Angus Campbell of Daltote,
298. John Campbell of Ulva,
299. Alexander Lamond of Monydrain,
300. John Campbell of Ardtaraig,
301. John MacPhine of Invernoaden,
302. Alexander MacChuine of Kinlochalline,
303. Archibald MacPhun of Drip,
304. Alexander Campbell, younger of Sonachan,
305. James Wilson in Mosshead of Lochwinnoch [Lochwinnoch parish],
306. John Anderson, younger of Westerton [near Edinburgh?],
307. James Boyle, called Mr James Renwick, precentor,
308. Mr James Renwick, a preacher [Executed 1688],
[After this point, the list appears to abandon a fairly chronological format and begins to frequently contain duplicate entries.]
309. Mr Gabriel Maxwell, a minister, [before 1678]
310. Andrew Martin of Little Airies [See No.150],
311. Andrew Meek in Carnwath parish,
312. John Stewart, son to James Stewart in Drumlea [or Shawwood, Tarbolton parish],
313. Nicolas Cochrane, portioner of Melrose [or Newton, Roxburghshire],
314. John Cochrane of Chapel,
315. Robert Fullerton of Bennalls [Tarbolton parish],
316. John Wilson [See No. 63],
317. Mr Thomas Pillan [See No. 64],
318. Archibald Simpson [See No. 66],
319. Alexander Anderson [See No. 71],
320. John Sempill [See No. 69],
321. William Padyn [See No. 74],
322. Thomas Inglis [See No. 70],
323. Thomas Lauchlan [See No. 67],
324. William Ferguson [See No. 68],
325. Alexander Brown,
326. Gideon Weir [See No. 61],
327. James Howison [See No. 199],

[Renfrewshire Executions]
328. James Algeir in Kennishead [Executed 1685],
329. [John] Park, in the shire of Renfrew [Executed 1685],

330. John Hutcheson of Harlaw [or ‘Harrilaw’ Currie parish or Linton parish],
331. Captain James Wishart;

and generally all and whatsoever decreets and dooms of forfeitures, given and pronounced against any of the subjects of this kingdom, either by the high court of parliament or ordinary or circuit courts of justiciary, or any other court or commission from 1 January 1665 to 5 November 1688, with all escheats fallen upon the grounds of the said forfeitures since the said day, are and shall be void and of no value, force, strength nor effect in all time coming, rescinding and reducing the same forever, except the decreets of forfeiture pronounced against Pàdraig Ruadh MacGriogair, Patrick Drummond, Alasdair Mór MacGriogair, John MacIntosh and Philip Standfield [for murder].’

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Text © Copyright Dr Mark Jardine. All Rights Reserved. Please link to this post on Facebook or retweet it, but do not reblog in FULL without the express permission of the author @drmarkjardine

Christian Fyfe Declares that Charles II ‘Deserved to be Murdered’

•July 27, 2014 • Leave a Comment

On Sunday 19 March, 1682, Christian Fyfe entered the Old Kirk of St Giles and beat up the minister. Alexander Ramsay, at the end of his sermon. According to her confession, she went there with the purpose of assaulting Ramsay…

Hangings Alison and Harvie

Christian Fyfe, a recent ‘indweller in Fife’, had possibly been radicalised by Donald Cargill’s field preachings there in 1680 to 1681. In her protests before the privy council and justiciary, she referred to the executions of both Cargill and the Fife laird, David Hackstoun of Rathillet.

Ramsay was was a supporter of the Restoration settlement of the church, but was later suspended for publicly voicing his fears about popery in 1686. He was deprived of his charge at the Revolution. (Fasti, I, 71.)

Wodrow records the following about Fyfe:

‘Another process against a poor ignorant simple woman [i.e., a female adherent of the Societies’ platform], I find before the same court. March 27th, Christian Fyfe, late indweller in Fife, is indicted for invading a minister, and treason. The probation adduced against her is her own confession, before the committee for public affairs. “Edinburgh, 21st March, Christian Fyfe confesseth, that on sabbath last, she did beat Mr Ramsay in the old kirk, at the ending of the sermon, and the reason was, she thought he was profaning the sabbath. She declares she thinks the king is not lawful king nor the judges lawful judges, otherwise they would never have murdered Mr Donald Cargill [in July, 1681] and [David Hackstoun of] Rathillet [in July, 1680]. Since Mr Cargill’s death she thinks there was not an honest minister in Scotland. That she thinks it very good service to kill all the bishops present and all of them that are in Scotland; declares the reason why she went to the church was to beat and not to hear the minister.

When before the justiciary, she judicially adheres to all she had formerly confessed, and declines them as her judges; and adds, she went not to the kirk to beat a lawful minister, but one whom she thought a Judas and a devil. That these who killed the archbishop were at their duty. Without any difficulty the assize bring her in guilty, and the lords sentence her to be hanged at the Grassmarket upon the 7th of April.’ (Wodrow, History, III, 409-10.)

Wodrow’s passage on Christian Fyfe has led to her inclusion on lists of those executed. Her name appears on a plaque in Edinburgh.

However, Christian Fyfe was not executed.

Lord Fountainhall records:

‘27 March 1682.—At Criminall Court, the woman called Christian Fyffe (who had struck Mr. Alexander Ramsay, the minister of Edinburgh,) was condemned to be hanged, on the 7 of Aprill nixt, for railing upon his Majesty, calling the King a villain, a knave, ane apostat, perjured man, who deserved to be murdered, &c.: which shee would not retract, tho hir life was offered hir, if she would do it. This was a wild delusion of [Richard] Cameron’s sowing; but the Privy Counsell, looking on hir as mad, repreived hir.’ (Lauder, Historical Notices, 350-1.)

Fyfe’s reprieve from execution came over a year after two militant women, Isobel Alison and Marion Harvie, were hanged in Edinburgh. Fyfe remained in prison for many years.

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Text © Copyright Dr Mark Jardine. All Rights Reserved. Please link to this post on Facebook or retweet it, but do not reblog in FULL without the express permission of the author @drmarkjardine